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The Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent

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The Fertile Crescent

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  1. The Fertile Crescent

  2. Preview • What country is this? • What significant features stand out to you? • What cues did you use from the photograph to determine the name of the country? • Is this a place you would consider visiting? Why or why not.

  3. Processing • Phocenia wh/ = modern day Lebanon • What cues did you use from the photograph to determine the name of the country? • Is this a place you would consider visiting? • Why or why not Why do you think this city was and is important?

  4. The Fertile Crescent • Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq • Tigris & Euphrates • Mesopotamia: Land between the rivers

  5. Civilization begins • Growth of cities • 3000 BCE approx. 12 cities • City=center of trade for lg area • Specialized labor • Everyone w/ own job • Artisan • Food=$ (how priest were paid)

  6. Writing • Pictographs • Ideographs • Cuneiform= “wedge shaped” (pg 21) • Advanced Technology • Wheel, plow, sailboat (3000 BCE) • Bronze Age 2800 BCE • Combination of copper & tin

  7. Complex Institutions • Long lasting patterns of organization • Gov’t marriage, religion, etc. Geographic Problems & Sumer (Sumerian) 3000-2000 BCE • H20: unknown when the rivers would flood; dried mud=desert • Created irrigation system

  8. Defense • Sumer: size of Massachusetts • Major city; Ur • Reed huts; not natural barriers • Built walls wh/ = creation of bricks • Resource • Traded grain for metal

  9. Religion Polytheistic: • Anu, Enlil,Ea w/ 3000 subgods • Gods were immortal: all powerful w/ human traits • Ziggurats were built for the priest • After-life called: land of no return • Priest: please gods, ran farms, collected taxes, declared war

  10. 4100 BCE in Iraq

  11. Class Divisions • Priest & nobles • Merchants • Workmen (farmers/artisans) • Slaves

  12. War determined leadership • Who was the best fighter=leader • Leader passes power down to his oldest son • Began the concept of “kingship” wh/ later=monarchy • War for 1000 years

  13. Sumer defeated by Amorites 2000-1800 BCE • Hammurabi • Babylon • Eventually conquered all of Meso. Wh/ = 1st empire

  14. Hammurabi’s Code ( 1792-1750 BCE) • Babylon needed law • Carved on stone columns (stele) • 3500 cuneiform lines • 282 specific laws • 88 w/ marriage, family, property

  15. Principles of the code (pg 33) • Retaliation • Double standard btwe. rich & poor; men & women • Gov’t responsible for society

  16. Babylon conquered by nomadic warriors circa1550 BCE • Territory controlled by many little groups for 700 years • One of those little groups called the Phoenicians

  17. Phoenicians 1000-700 BCE • 100 BCE powerful traders & merchants • Tyre: snails=purple dye • 60,000 sn. = 1 lb of dye • Trade due to lack of resources • Est. colonies in Africa including Carthage • Alphabet: reduced the 600 symbols system to 22 symbols

  18. The Jews 2000-586 BCE • 2000 BCE group of Jews left Sumerian st. • Abraham & Sarah led nomadic group to Canaan (Palestine) • Monotheism: Supreme being, Creator of all things, ruler f the universe • God went w/ them

  19. 1650 BCE famine & drought came to Canaan • Many people-including Jews- migrated to Egypt • Honor to slaves • 1300-1200 Jews fled: Moses • Sinai peninsula; Mt. Sinai = 10 commandments=Covenant=1stethical law

  20. Making the Connection How are the Ten Commandments different from Hammurabi’s Code? Have the Ten Commandments influenced modern law in the US and other Western countries?

  21. Judaism recognized as new religion: Justice, Morality, Relationship • Again to Canaan=Promised Land • Israel: Jerusalem • Canaanites not happy • Kings needed: 1020-922 • Saul 2. David 3. Solomon

  22. Solomon • Ark of the covenant • Increased taxes • 922: Israel (N) Judah (S)

  23. Iron Age: Bronze out Iron in • Assyrians850-612 BCE • Assurbanipal (Persian Gulf to Med.) • Greatest power in SW Asia • 1st trained army • Tortured, killed, enslaved, removed • Nineveh; library w/ over 25,000 writings

  24. Asshurbanipal on a chariotduring a royal lion hunt.

  25. Chaldeans 612-564 BCE • Reestablished Babylon • 1st empire • Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562) • Hanging gardens (pump system) • Dies @ 43 end of Meso. empires

  26. An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that depicts Nebuchadnezzar II

  27. Stargazers • Ziggurats over 300 ft. high • Priest & stars • Months • Destiny • Zodiac: 12 constellations • Moon: months divided 4 week

  28. Babylonian Captivity • Jerusalem conquered 586 BCE • Jews taken as slaves to Babylon • Monotheism spread

  29. Making the Connection Why is the spread of monotheism an important event in the development of civilizations?

  30. Persians 550-350 BCE • Left local customs alone • Babylon welcomed Persians and Cyrus prayed to their gods • Jews back to Jerusalem • Torah in print • 20 provinces w/ multi nationalities • Satraps = governors in charge of ea. Province • Road & Coinage system: standard $

  31. Zoroaster • Ahura-Mazda (truth & light) • Ahriman (evil & darkness) • Humans knowingly picked a side • 1st hopeful religion

  32. Zoroaster: Iranian prophet and poet