The Fertile Crescent …the Cradle of Civilization
The Fertile Crescent… Where is it? Fertile Crescent is here. You are here.
Mesopotamia… Greek: “The land between rivers”
The Fertile Crescent • The Fertile Crescent: • Crescent-shapedregion of fertile land in the otherwise dry and arid Middle East where the earliest civilizations thrived. • Mesopotamia: • Fertile strip of land between and around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in modern day Iraq • Greek: “Land between rivers” • Civilization: • A centralized society with developed forms of religion, ways of governing, and learning • In Mesopotamia around 3500 BC, villages are thriving due to agriculture and are growing into larger cities
How could each of the following have contributed to the rise of civilization? • Working Together? • When people cooperate, they can get more done • Ex: farming • Division of Labor? • When people specialize on certain tasks, they can do those tasks better • Ex: teachers • Technology? • Technology: the skills or knowledge to make products or meet goals • Inventions of tools or processes help us solve problems and be more successful. • Ex: irrigation or the wheel • Religion? • Brings people together • Government? • Helps to accomplish large tasks • Promotes order and protects the people and their property • Trade? • Helps people to exchange abundant resources for other resources that they may want/need • Promotes wealth • Social Classes? • Establishes roles and expectations of members of society
How do each of the following play a role in the success of America? THESE ARE THE 7 PILLARS OF CIVILIZATION • Working Together? • Division of Labor? • Technology? • Religion? • Government? • Trade? • Social Classes?
Technology in Sumer • Irrigation • Channeling water from rivers to fields • Dikes/Levies • Controlling floods • Wheel • Moving goods • Monarchy Government • Organizing large groups under one efficient ruler • Writing • Cuneiform • Invented to keep trade records
The Civilization of Sumer • Begins with the growth of City-States • These Cities were alternately rivals and partners in the growth of Sumerian civilization • Uruk • Ur • Kish • Nippur • Etc… • Video
Growth of Civilization • Farming leads to Villages • Villages lead to cities and city-states • Cities required: • GOVERNMENT to make laws and decisions and promote order • DIVISION OF LABOR to utilize the work force in benefit of the city • TRADE to exchange plentiful goods for other goods that you need • SOCIAL CLASSES to define the roles of the people for the good of the city • TAXES to pay for the support and defense of the city • ARMIES to protect from and/or attack rival cities • RELIGION to explain the world • Ziggurats
Social Classes in Sumer • Nobles • Included the King, Priests, and other leaders • The King and the Priests were thought to have a direct link to the gods • Women could be Priests or nobles • This group held most of the wealth • Merchants and Skilled Workers • Doctors, bricklayers, scribes • Specialized workers • Often engaged in trade with one another to complete tasks • Unskilled Workers and Slaves • Most Slaves were prisoners of war • Slavery wasn’t always a permanent condition
Mesopotamian Empires • As city-states continued warring, empires began to form • Akkadian Empire • First Mesopotamian Empire • Sargon I • Emerged from the city-state of Kish to conquer much of Mesopotamia • Tore down walls and boundaries of other city-states • First government to have a standing army • Babylonian Empire • Emerged in southern Mesopotamia • Hammurabi the Lawgiver • Reformed tax code and system of laws • Assyrian Empire • Emerged in northern Mesopotamia • Interested in controlling trade routes
Powerwrite – 2-3 sentences • In your notes: ****Choose one law or rule that you have to follow that you think is unfair and briefly explain why you think it’s unfair. • For discussion: ****Even if the law or rule is unfair, can you think of why it is NECESSARY?
Code of Hammurabi • 282 laws covering much of Babylonian life • Compiled by Hammurabi • Thought to have originated around 1772 B.C. • Contributed to stability in the Babylonian Empire
Israelites • Abram • Born in the Sumerian City of Ur • Believed in one God • Monotheism – belief in one God • Almost all others believed in multiple gods • Abram made a covenant, or agreement, with his God • Abram promised to be faithful to his God • Abram became Abraham • God led him and his family to the land of Canaan
Israelites • Judaism • Monotheistic religion that grew among the Israelites • Christianity and Islam emerge from the same tradition • The Ten Commandments • Given to Moses from God as a set of rules for the Jewish people • The Jewish people built the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah • These kingdoms were conquered by the Babylonians and the Assyrians • Eventually the region was conquered by the Romans • Jews revolted against Roman rule • Romans changed the name of the region to Palestine and forced the Jews out • Diaspora: people settled far from their ancestral homelands
Phoenicians • Loose union of city-states north of Israel • Not many natural resources, so they turned into great traders • Developed advanced sailing technology • Developed trading colonies throughout the Mediterranean Sea • Developed an alphabet • This alphabet spread throughout Europe through trade
Lydians • Introduced coined money • First coins were bean sized mixtures of gold and silver • Allowed the money economy to form • Set prices • Economic stability • No more barter