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The Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent

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The Fertile Crescent

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  1. The Fertile Crescent …the Cradle of Civilization

  2. The Fertile Crescent… Where is it? Fertile Crescent is here. You are here.

  3. The Fertile Crescent… Where is it?

  4. Mesopotamia… Greek: “The land between rivers”

  5. The Fertile Crescent • The Fertile Crescent: • Crescent-shapedregion of fertile land in the otherwise dry and arid Middle East where the earliest civilizations thrived. • Mesopotamia: • Fertile strip of land between and around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in modern day Iraq • Greek: “Land between rivers” • Civilization: • A centralized society with developed forms of religion, ways of governing, and learning • In Mesopotamia around 3500 BC, villages are thriving due to agriculture and are growing into larger cities

  6. How could each of the following have contributed to the rise of civilization? • Working Together? • When people cooperate, they can get more done • Ex: farming • Division of Labor? • When people specialize on certain tasks, they can do those tasks better • Ex: teachers • Technology? • Technology: the skills or knowledge to make products or meet goals • Inventions of tools or processes help us solve problems and be more successful. • Ex: irrigation or the wheel • Religion? • Brings people together • Government? • Helps to accomplish large tasks • Promotes order and protects the people and their property • Trade? • Helps people to exchange abundant resources for other resources that they may want/need • Promotes wealth • Social Classes? • Establishes roles and expectations of members of society

  7. How do each of the following play a role in the success of America? THESE ARE THE 7 PILLARS OF CIVILIZATION • Working Together? • Division of Labor? • Technology? • Religion? • Government? • Trade? • Social Classes?

  8. Technology in Sumer • Irrigation • Channeling water from rivers to fields • Dikes/Levies • Controlling floods • Wheel • Moving goods • Monarchy Government • Organizing large groups under one efficient ruler • Writing • Cuneiform • Invented to keep trade records

  9. The Civilization of Sumer • Begins with the growth of City-States • These Cities were alternately rivals and partners in the growth of Sumerian civilization • Uruk • Ur • Kish • Nippur • Etc… • Video

  10. Growth of Civilization • Farming leads to Villages • Villages lead to cities and city-states • Cities required: • GOVERNMENT to make laws and decisions and promote order • DIVISION OF LABOR to utilize the work force in benefit of the city • TRADE to exchange plentiful goods for other goods that you need • SOCIAL CLASSES to define the roles of the people for the good of the city • TAXES to pay for the support and defense of the city • ARMIES to protect from and/or attack rival cities • RELIGION to explain the world • Ziggurats

  11. Social Classes in Sumer • Nobles • Included the King, Priests, and other leaders • The King and the Priests were thought to have a direct link to the gods • Women could be Priests or nobles • This group held most of the wealth • Merchants and Skilled Workers • Doctors, bricklayers, scribes • Specialized workers • Often engaged in trade with one another to complete tasks • Unskilled Workers and Slaves • Most Slaves were prisoners of war • Slavery wasn’t always a permanent condition

  12. Mesopotamian Empires • As city-states continued warring, empires began to form • Akkadian Empire • First Mesopotamian Empire • Sargon I • Emerged from the city-state of Kish to conquer much of Mesopotamia • Tore down walls and boundaries of other city-states • First government to have a standing army • Babylonian Empire • Emerged in southern Mesopotamia • Hammurabi the Lawgiver • Reformed tax code and system of laws • Assyrian Empire • Emerged in northern Mesopotamia • Interested in controlling trade routes

  13. Mesopotamian Empires

  14. Powerwrite – 2-3 sentences • In your notes: ****Choose one law or rule that you have to follow that you think is unfair and briefly explain why you think it’s unfair. • For discussion: ****Even if the law or rule is unfair, can you think of why it is NECESSARY?

  15. Code of Hammurabi • 282 laws covering much of Babylonian life • Compiled by Hammurabi • Thought to have originated around 1772 B.C. • Contributed to stability in the Babylonian Empire

  16. Israelites • Abram • Born in the Sumerian City of Ur • Believed in one God • Monotheism – belief in one God • Almost all others believed in multiple gods • Abram made a covenant, or agreement, with his God • Abram promised to be faithful to his God • Abram became Abraham • God led him and his family to the land of Canaan

  17. Israelites • Judaism • Monotheistic religion that grew among the Israelites • Christianity and Islam emerge from the same tradition • The Ten Commandments • Given to Moses from God as a set of rules for the Jewish people • The Jewish people built the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah • These kingdoms were conquered by the Babylonians and the Assyrians • Eventually the region was conquered by the Romans • Jews revolted against Roman rule • Romans changed the name of the region to Palestine and forced the Jews out • Diaspora: people settled far from their ancestral homelands

  18. Phoenicians • Loose union of city-states north of Israel • Not many natural resources, so they turned into great traders • Developed advanced sailing technology • Developed trading colonies throughout the Mediterranean Sea • Developed an alphabet • This alphabet spread throughout Europe through trade

  19. Lydians • Introduced coined money • First coins were bean sized mixtures of gold and silver • Allowed the money economy to form • Set prices • Economic stability • No more barter