Lesson 3: Aristotle: A weak dualist view? From your AS knowledge, Explain to the person next to you, what might Aristotle believe about the soul?
Aristotle gave the example of a wax tablet with a stamp impressed on it The shape made by the wax is inseparable from the wax …just as the soul is inseparable from the person
Physical body in a continual state of change Soul (substance) remains the same
If an axe had a soul then that soul would involve chopping because that is the function of the axe.
Considered the soul to include the matter and structure of the body with its functions and capabilities • Unlike Plato soul could be explained in purely natural terms rather than making reference to any supernatural realm
De Anima (On the Soul) began with ‘the soul is in some sense the principle of animal life’ • Various kinds of soul • Plants – vegetative or ‘nutritive’ soul – capability to get nourishment for themselves and ensure the reproduction of their species but no ability to reason or make plans
Does Aristotle believe in the immortality of the soul? • ‘It is not likely that Aristotle believed people could live after death in any personal sense’. Ahluwalia ‘To attain any assured knowledge of the soul is one of the most difficult things in the world’(Aristotle De Anima Book 1)
OR Aristotle Plato
Make some key ideas cards for another team to sort into Plato or Aristotle: eg • The soul exists • The soul has three parts • Life after death is unlikely • Souls are part of our physicality • The soul doesn’t have a supernatural cause • The soul and body cannot be separated • Souls exist before we are born • Reason is part of the soul • Souls are immortal • Dualist approach
Beginning to practice essay technique… • Which is most convincing? Plato or Aristotle’s view towards the soul? Discuss strengths and weaknesses.