Important Vocabulary • Absolute monarch • A ruler whose power is not limited by having to consult with nobles, peasants, etc. • Divine right • The belief that monarchs receive their power from God and therefore cannot be challenged • Constitutional Monarch • A monarch whose power is limited
Divine Right • The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth; for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God Himself they are called gods… Kings justly gods, for they exercise a… divine power upon earth… God hath power to create or destroy, make or unmake at His pleasure, to give life or sent death to judge and to be judged nor accountable to none, to raise low things and to make high things low at His pleasure… And the like power of kings… -King James IV/I of Britain, 1609
Charles V • Holy Roman Emperor • Wanted all of Europe to be Catholic • Peace of Augsburg • Said each German prince could decide if his state would be Catholic or Protestant • Gave up his throne in 1556
Phillip II • Spanish King • Devout Catholic • Rivalry with England • 1588-Spanish Armada- called invincible, attacked England • England won • Insisted on approving every decision himself, trusted nobody
Phillip II used his royal status as an absolute monarch to increase his personal power, extend Spain’s power and influence around the world, and defend the Catholic Church. • Was named a Defender of the Faith by the Catholic Church.
Spanish decline • Wars overseas, which cost much of Spain’s accumulated wealth • Dependence on the treasure from the New World, causing Spain to neglect its farming and commerce • Heavy taxes on the middle class • The expulsion of the Muslims and Jews
France • 1593 – Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV “Paris is well worth a mass” • 1598 – Edict of Nantes
Louis XIII • France • Cardinal Richelieu was his chief minister and advisor • Suppressed nobles and Huguenots (French Protestants) • Weak ruler
Louis XIV • King of France • “I am the state”- ruled as absolute monarch • The Sun King • Versailles • 1685 - Revoked the Edict of Nantes - Outlawed Protestants in France
England • In England, Kings and Parliament struggled for control for centuries. After much conflict, including a civil war, Parliament won.
Henry VIII • King of England • Called Reformation Parliament to declare England free of authority of the Pope • Established the Church of England • Had six wives
Mary I • English Queen • Catholic, daughter of Henry VIII • Forced Catholicism on England • Persecuted Protestants • Died without an heir
Elizabeth I • Queen of England • Returned England to the Anglican Church • Parliament pressured her to marry, she refused • Reigned for 45 years- “Elizabethan Age” • Died without an heir
James I • First monarch of the Stuart dynasty • Wanted to be an absolute monarch, but was low on funds • King James Bible
Charles I • Wanted money from Parliament • Signed Petition of Right • King could not levy taxes without Parliament’s approval • Challenged absolute monarchies • Dismissed Parliament for a decade • 1642- English Civil War • Sentenced to death for treason and beheaded
Oliver Cromwell • Led “Roundheads,” or Parliament • Became Lord Protector of England • Clamped down once in power • Dismissed Parliament • Closed theaters, other forms of entertainment
Charles II • Invited back by Parliament- Restoration • Reopened theaters, drama flourished • Habeas Corpus Act: someone accused of a crime has the right to appear in court • Plague, Great Fire of London
James II • Catholic • Believed in his right to rule as an absolute monarch • English would no longer tolerate such a belief
William and Mary • 1688 - Glorious Revolution • English Bill of Rights • Constitutional Monarchy
Russia • Two Russian rulers, Peter and Catherine, attempted to modernize Russia, and gathered an enormous amount of power to their thrones.
Ivan the Terrible • In the beginning of his reign, he made many reforms- “good period” • Became suspicious (wife’s death) • Created a private police force • Killed thousands of people, including his own son • Died without an heir
Peter the Great • Russia • Known for his efforts to modernize, “Westernize” Russia • Traveled Europe in disguise • Brought church under state control • Promoted officials based on service • Supported education • Founded St. Petersburg
Catherine the Great • Czarina • Sought to continue Peter’s practices • Faced rebellion in Russia, strengthened the authority of the monarchy
Austria • In central Europe, the Thirty Years’ War left Germany divided. • The Hapsburg family in Austria added territory but couldn’t maintain as strong an authority as other monarchs.
Thirty Years War • Thirty Years War -- between the Catholic Hapsburgs and Protestants in Prague. • Laid waste to much of central Europe. • It was settled by the Peace of Westphalia. • France won --got more territory • Hapsburgs lost a lot. • Germany was divided into more than 360 separate states.
Maria Theresa • Daughter of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor • Fought war of Austrian Succession, lost
Prussia • Prussia emerged as a power in the 1600’s, led by the Hohenzollerns. • They created an efficient bureaucracy and strong military.
Frederick the Great • Prussia, seized Austrian lands • Tried to offer Maria Theresa an alliance, she refused • Fought War of Austrian Succession, won