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Absolute Monarchs

Absolute Monarchs

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Absolute Monarchs

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  1. Absolute Monarchs

  2. Ferdinand and Isabella • Spain • Ferdinand of Aragon, Isabella of Castille • Financed voyages of Columbus • Brought great wealth to Spain • Involved in Reconquista (reclaim Spain from Muslims) • Spanish Inquisition – burned thousands at the stake for heresy, witchcraft, NOT being Catholic

  3. Phillip II • Spain – 1580 – Hapsburg family • Father was Charles V – Holy Roman Empire • Great grandparents – Ferdinand and Isabella • Aggressive; added territory for Spain • Europe’s “most Catholic King” • Crusaded against Muslims for Catholicism • Expelled Jews/Muslims (hurt economy) • Incredible wealth in gold, silver through exploration

  4. Phillip II • Population increase; inflation; competition from other countries in trade • Period of art and literature (Don Quixote by Cervantes) • Dutch Protestant revolt • Defeat of his Spanish Armada 1588 (by England) • Weakened Spain – Inflation, taxes • Spain never regains its power

  5. Louis XIV • France – 1643 – Bourbon family • Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) first • Passed Edict of Nantes – religious toleration • Louis XIII weak; Cardinal Richelieu focused on strong economy • Louis XIV – guided by Mazarin • Helped him rule from 5-23 • Thirty Years’ War – religious wars • L’etatc’estmoi – I am the state • The Sun King built palace at Versailles

  6. Louis XIV • Weakened power of nobles (appointed intendants – gov’t officials) • Colbert - Finance Minister furthered industry, built roads, canals, trading posts (fur) in N. America; mercantilism • Revoked Edict of Nantes – lost thousands of Protestants which hurt science, culture, etc. • Protestants suffered • Never called the Estates General (legislature) • Flowering of French art and literature • Fought costly wars; heavy taxation

  7. Maria Theresa • Austria – 1740 – Hapsburg family • Increased royal power; weakened nobles • Abolished local self-govt. • Lowered taxes; tried to reform govt. • Seized Church lands, controlling Church • Staunch Catholic • Lost 7 Years War against Prussia; lost Silesia • Stopped Prussia from taking Austria

  8. Joseph II • Austria - Hapsburg family • Enlightened leader • Reforms for Austria • Abolished serfdom, feudal dues, and hereditary privileges • Loved by commoners; not nobles • Weakened power of nobles • Built hospitals, orphanages, insane asylums, poorhouses, gardens • Free food and medical care to the poor • Catholic but some reforms upset Catholic Church

  9. Frederick the Great • Prussia – Hohenzollern family • Autocratic rule – forced to watch friend beheaded as a child • Believed ruler should be like a father • Allowed Junkers (landholding nobility) to be officers in army • Produced strong militaristic state & rigid society • Expanded Prussia’s size • Reformed government – first code of German law • Took Silesia from Austria (rich in minerals) • Encouraged religions toleration • Fought Seven Years’ War with Britain • Enlightened despot

  10. Ivan III (the Great) • 1462- 1505 – Vasilyevichfamily name • First national sovereign • Refused to pay tribute and freed Russia from Mongol rule • Extended Russia’s borders; centralized Russia’s government • Moscow becomes more important • Byzantine crumbled – many Orthodox fled to Moscow • Became center of Royal Court • Moscow – the “Third Rome” • Built autocratic govt • Trivia: first marriage at age 12

  11. Ivan the Terrible • Russia – Vasilyevich family name • Used term czar (tsar) • Good period – added lands to Russia, code of law, ruled justly • Bad period – after wife died – executed many boyars (landowning nobles); used secret police • Killed own son in an argument; killed, tortured animals and people; fits of violent rage • Turmoil after Ivan’s death – grandnephew, Michael Romanov began Romanov Dynasty • Construction of St. Basil’s Cathedral • Reformed tax collection • Self-government in rural areas

  12. Peter the Great • Russia - Romanov family • Period of serfdom & agriculture • Mongol rule had cut Russia off from Renaissance & Age of Exploration • Expanded territory • Visits west and sought western influence • Westernization and modernization of Russia • Introduced potatoes, first newspaper, improved women’s status, encouraged education

  13. Peter the Great • Needed warm-water ports (“windows” to the west) • Made men dress like Europeans, shave beards • Modernized and strengthened army • Built St. Petersburg on Baltic coast (after Saint) • Supported science and the arts • Could be cruel and tyrannical • Thousands of serfs died from disease, work, etc.

  14. Catherine the Great • Russia – Romanov family • Longest ruling female leader in Russia • Most educated, cultured, well read • Some reform attempts – religious toleration, abolition of torture, capital punishment; most not put into effect though; many suffered • Crushed peasant rebellions • Gave power to nobles over serfs • Territorial expansion • Wrote many books and pamphlets; supported arts • Strengthened and expanded Russia

  15. Henry VIII • England – Tudor family • Act of Supremacy – takes control of Anglican Church; wants to marry Anne Boleyn • Seizes and sells Church lands • Religious conflicts between Protestants and Catholics • Marries 6 times • Ignores Parliament at times

  16. Elizabeth I • England - Tudor family • Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn • Strong leader; expanded central govt. • England became strongest country in Europe • Economic prosperity • Supported voyages (& raids on Spanish ships) • Popular – aroused British nationalism • Returned England to Protestantism (after Mary) • Defeated Spanish Armada in 1588 • Never married – ruled 44 years