Who are absolute monarchs? • Kings or queens who held all power within their states’ boundaries • They believed god created the monarchy and monarchs were God’s representative on earth (Divine Right)
Phillip II • Son of Charles V – ruler of the Holy Roman Empire • Became ruler of Spain, Netherlands, and the Spanish American colonies • Created and empire that circled the globe
Phillip II • Defender of Catholicism against Muslims and Protestants • Defeated Ottomans at Battle of Lepanto (1571) • Spanish Armada destroyed by England (1588) • Spanish empire never recovers
Louis XIV • Background • Grandfather – Henry IV enacted the Edict of Nantes • Cardinal Richelieu helped Louis’ dad establish control of France
Louis’ Background • Louis became king at 4 years old when his father died • Louis grew hate the nobility, because of the riots that tore France apart during his childhood
“L’ètat, e’est moi” • “I am the state” • Louis’ view was that he and the state were one in the same • He became the most powerful ruler in French history • Builds the Palace of Versailles.
The Palace of Versailles • On page 166- Answer the 2 skill builder questions.
Louis attacks the Nobility • Louis excluded the nobility from the French councils • He increased the power of government agents called intendants • The intendants collected taxes
How does the changes that King Louis XIV made, demonstrate an absolute ruler?
Louis is devoted to making France an Economic Power • He wanted to make France self-sufficient • Colbert his financial advisor, develops the theory of mercantilism: • Wanted to export (send goods over seas) more than you import (bring goods in from over seas) • Mercantilism becomes the ECONOMIC theory that all other countries follow. You use the colonies for Raw resources and YOU produce for your country. • Which country helped its’ enemies by not following mercantilism? Why?
Louis XIV believed that in order for France to continue to be powerful, he needed to expand his empire to include more people and more land. • He attacked a portion of the Netherlands and was successful… with his victory he decided to continue to expand, but his luck ran out… • What do you think made King Louis XIV stop his expansionary campaign?
King Louis XIV stops… • Countries learned to join together to defeat France • Louis spent his $ on military campaigns to expand French boundaries • How does he pay for war? _________________ • These wars almost bankrupted the country
War of Spanish Succession • The Spanish king left his throne to Louis XIV grandson in 1700 • This meant the French and Spanish would be united by blood. • Europe was outraged & worried about the two biggest powers being united by blood… WHY?
War of Spanish Succession • This war lasted 13 years & France lost • Louis lost 3 out of 4 sons • His grandson will become king of Spain • Louis died in 1715
Louis’ Legacy • When Louis died in 1715, people cheered! • WHY? • Mixed legacy: • Positive: France ranked above all other European nations in art & literature. Also considered the military leader of Europe • Negative: Constant warfare & the construction of the Palace of Versailles put France into staggering debt. Plus the poor were burdened by high taxes
Louis XIV Review • List 4 ways that Louis XIV was an absolutist ruler. A B C D • Was Louis’ plan for financing the country a good plan or not? • How do you think people felt about King Louis XIV heir?
Absolute Rulers of Russia • The first Czar: Ivan the Terrible • Became king at a very young age and had to fight the boyars (Russian nobles) for his throne. • During his “good period” he added land, created a code of law and was liked by many. • Later came his Rule of Terror • Any traitors or people he felt threatened him would be executed. He took over their land and wealth. • The most violent incident… he had his oldest son killed… why?
Peter The Great • After Ivan’s death, there was no heir. Why? • This led to a period of instability for Russia…why • Ivan’s grandnephew restored the czar lineage, and becomes the first Romanov czar. They stabilized russia and paved the way for Peter. • Why do you think he is called Peter the great?
Peter traveled to the West to learn and imitate the great empires of Western Europe. • VIDEO • His travels result in the Westernization of Russia. • He imitates city structures • He limits the power of the boyars… why? • He limits the power of the church… why? • He modernizes his army… • He makes Russians wear western clothes. • He creates St. Petersburg.
The English Monarchy • Absolute ruler- Queen Elizabeth was tough, ruthless and fearless. • Parliament would also describe her as a BIG SPENDER. • After her death the British crown had a lot of debt. • King James takes over and fights with parliament over…. You guessed it… • MONEY • Soon he died and his son Charles I takes over… do things change?
NO! • Charles fights with France and Spain and asks Parliament for money they refuse and he… dissolves parliament. • How did this make people feel? • He quickly realizes he needs parliament, but they only agree to serve him if he abides the following rules: • No imprisoning of people without a due cause • No raising of taxes without Parliament consent • No housing of soldiers in peoples homes • No martial law in peace time. • He agrees… but pays no attention.
Why is Parliaments actions important? • It limited the power of the King… • Charles dissolves parliament AGAIN… and decides to get money on his own by: • Raising and placing FEES and FINES on the English people. • How do you think people feel? • Charles realizes he needs money…so who does he call back? • PARLIAMENT
Parliament agrees to return but only if they can limit the kings power…. WHAAAAT (that is what Charles said.) • He persecutes members of parliament… • How do you think this makes people feel?
Yup, angry! So… what did people do when they were angry? • Usually protest, but these people took it up a notch. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mciy4-uYyYw • ROYALIST (who were… ) vs. Roundheads (why?) • This is known as the English Civil War. • Let’s just say the people with the worst nickname won… no not the Royalist. • The Roundheads. • What do we do with the king?
Trial: Treason against parliament… • We find him _____________ • SO……
First time a King is put to death in a public trial and execution. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLnvpfPTRuM
Cromwell, the leader of the Roundheads… takes over & turns England into a Puritan state. • The Puritans make everything… BORING • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4M0PQct9ytg • So parliament asks Charles son to come and be king again… thus begins the era of RESTORATION. • Charles II is king so what is restored? _______________ Habeas Corpus passes… a prisoner must be told what he is accused of in front of a judge. WHY? • Video part 2.
Charles II is king so what is restored? _______________ Habeas Corpus passes… a prisoner must be told what he is accused of in front of a judge. WHY? • Video part 2.
After the monarchy rule, the parliament passes the Bill of Rights and officially becomes a constitutional monarch. Putting an end to Absolute Rule. • Under a constitutional monarch, the King/Queen could not rule without support of the parliament.
What is something positive of an absolute monarch? • What is something negative? • What conditions led to the formation of absolute monarchs? • How did most people feel about their absolute ruler? Did they always feel like this? Explain. • What are some similarities of absolute rulers in France, Spain, Russia and England? • What are some differences? • How do you think the death of king Charles I affect the world? Think of people, colonies and other rulers.
The Thirty Years’ War • Causes • Ferdinand II - Holy Roman Emperor (Catholic) forced some Protestant churches to close in Bohemia. • Protestants revolted against Ferdinand’s policy. • Ferdinand sent troops to punish the protestors. • German Protestant princes sent troops to help the protestors.
The Thirty Years’ War • Phase 1 • Ferdinand’s army (Catholics) constantly defeat the Protestants. • They destroy many German villages. • Phase 2 • France helps the Protestant nations defeat the Hapsburgs (Ferdinand’s family) army. • Peace of Westphalia • France takes German territory • German princes are independent of the Holy Roman Empire