Absolute Monarchs The where, the how, and the why.
Question • What is an absolute monarch? • Absolute monarchism refers to one person who has absolute rule over a country or a state. This form of rule is usually hereditary or they claim as being given divine right with or without advisors. This may not be a bad form of government and is necessary for certain countries. For example, when the French did not have Law and Order, absolute Monarchism helped it to boost its economy and get the country in order again. Other less developed countries in Eastern Europe heard of absolute Monarchism and also adopted Absolute Monarchy. Thus, this caused these countries to have a powerful monarchy.
Map of Europe 1700s Russia Romanov Prussia Hohenzollern Austria Habsburg France Bourbon
Why did Absolute Monarchies Develop? • Decline of Feudalism • Rise of cities and the support of the middle class • Growth in national kingdoms • Loss of authority of the Church • Religious and territorial conflicts from 1550s onwards • Buildup of armies • Need for increased taxation • Revolts by peasants and nobles
What were the Consequences of Absolute Monarchies? • Regulation of religion and society • Larger Courts • Huge building projects • Palaces and forts • New Government bureaucracies appointed by the government • Loss of power by nobility and legislatures • France’s parliament did not meet from 1630s to1789
Why did no Absolute Monarchy Develop in England? • English Civil War • Charles I is beheaded • Increase in the powers of Parliament • Glorious Revolution • William III and Mary recognized Parliament as a partner • Bill of Rights 1689 • Creation of Cabinet System
Louis XIV. The Sun King • L’ etatc’estmoi!
Statistics on Versailles • 2,000 acres of grounds • 12 miles of roads • 27 miles of trellises • 200,000 trees • 210,000 flowers planted every year • 80 miles of rows of trees • 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal • 12 miles of enclosing walls • 50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles • 21 miles of water conduits • 3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed • 26 acres of roof • 51,210 square meters of floors • 2,153 windows • 700 rooms • 67 staircases • 6,000 paintings • 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings • 2,100 sculptures • 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art • 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden
Frederick the Great of Prussia • Created the notion of ‘first servant of the state.’ • Brilliant military leader. Conquered Silesia from Austria in the War of Austrian Succession. • He modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and promoted religious tolerance throughout his realm • Frederick patronized the arts and philosophers, and wrote flute music.
Peter the Great and Catherine the Great of Russia • Built St Petersburg as Russia’s window on Europe • Promoted reforms in Russian society, education, and military. • Encouraged Russian nobles to shun Russian traditions and adopt western values. Beards were shaved off and western clothes were encouraged. • Originally a German Princess • She created a new legal system and established schools and colleges • Corresponded with French Enlightenment Thinkers • Defeated the Turks and partitioned Poland
Maria Theresa of Austria and Joseph II • Managed to hold together Hapsburg inheritance during War of Austrian Succession. • She undertook financial, legal, and educational reforms, promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, and reorganized Austria's ramshackle military, all of which strengthened Austria's international standing. • However, she refused to allow religious toleration and contemporary travelers thought her regime was bigoted and superstitious • Son on Maria Theresa. • Promoted religious reforms and centralized the power of the Habsburg State