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ABSOLUTE MONARCHS

ABSOLUTE MONARCHS

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ABSOLUTE MONARCHS

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  1. ABSOLUTE MONARCHS

  2. Absolute Monarch Absolute monarchy is a form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force.

  3. Charles VHoly Roman EmperorKing of Spain

  4. Charles V of Spain1507-1556 • Inherits Hapsburg family lands • Spain and Holy Roman Empire • Spain gains lands in Americas • Gold and Silver (explorers) • Rebellious Lutheran princes in German States • failed attempt to conquer Italy • His empire is split into two parts • Ferdinand – Holy Roman & Austria • Phillip II – Spain, Netherlands, American colonies

  5. Philip II of Spain 1556-1598 • Religious intolerance against Protestants, Muslims • Foreign Wars with Ottoman Empire • Christians vs. Muslims • Portugal conquered- total access to Atlantic • Rebellion in the Netherlands • Spain loses Netherlands • “Invincible” Armada defeated

  6. Waters too shallow • Could not deploy fleet • English ships smaller and quicker

  7. Decline of Spain • Inflation and taxes Population growing during good times demand more than supply • Expulsion of Jews and Muslims (1500) loss of businessmen and artisans • Spain’s nobles Did not have to pay taxes Burden fell on lower class

  8. Henry IV King of France 1st King of Bourbon Dynasty

  9. Henry IV of France Religious tolerance • Converts to Catholicism to gain support Edict of Nantes • Declaration of Religious toleration • Gave Huguenots equal treatment Brought prosperity to country • Trade • Honest government • building France’s infrastructure (roads, canals, etc)

  10. Louis XIV The most powerful ruler in French history “L’etat, c’est moi” – “I am the state” Took power when he was 23 (1661) • Limited power of Nobles • Devoted his reign to attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance • Jean Baptiste Colbert • Mercantilism – self-sufficient economy • More exports than imports

  11. Louis XIV The Sun King Policy of religious tolerance • persecutes French Protestants • Many valuable citizens leave the country Luxurious lifestyle • His Palace in Versailles • Weakens French economy Tries to gain control of Spain (12 years) • War of Spanish Succession (lost some power) Treaty of Utrecht (ended War of Spanish Succession) • Forbids union of two thrones

  12. Palace of Versailles

  13. Elizabeth I of England • Policy of religious tolerance • Peace within the country • Avoids challenges from Catholic opponents to her rule • Time of prosperity and culture in England • Dies without leaving an heir to the throne

  14. The Road to Civil War • Elizabeth’s successors reverse her policy of religious tolerance • Causing conflict Charles I • Policy of intolerance • Needs for money to finance wars • Parliament resists giving him the money • Petition of Right • Limits his ability to tax

  15. Civil War and Cromwell Parliament and Puritans • Fight against the monarchy Oliver Cromwell– Puritan General • New battle tactics win war • King Charles is beheaded for treason Cromwell rule • Commonwealth (republican govt.) • Sent Parliament home • Tore up constitution, ruled as dictator

  16. The Restoration 1658 – Cromwell dies 1660 – Charles II takes over son of Charles I (beheaded) His rule is known as “the Restoration” Popular with subjects not so much with Parliament more tolerant with religion than Parliament Succeeded by James II (brother of Charles II)

  17. James’ Rule Devoted Catholic – went against subjects Dissolved Parliament Heir to throne James had a son – people feared new line of Kings Older sister – Mary- Protestant Married William of Orange, Prince of Nether. Glorious Revolution William brought army to London James fled to France – ending rule

  18. William and Mary Agreed to conditions of the English Bill of Rights • No suspending of Parliaments laws • No levying of taxes w/o specific grant from Parliament • No interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament • No penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances

  19. Questions?