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Absolute Monarchs

Absolute Monarchs

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Absolute Monarchs

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  1. Absolute Monarchs

  2. Phillip II • Spain – 1580 • Father was Charles V – Holy Roman Empire • Great grandparents – Ferdinand and Isabella • Aggressive; added territory for Spain • Europe’s “most Catholic King” • Crusaded against Muslims for Catholicism • Incredible wealth in gold, silver • Period of art and literature (Don Quixote by Cervantes) • Population increase; inflation; competition from other countries in trade • Dutch Protestant revolt • Defeat of Spanish Armada 1588

  3. Louis XIV • France – 1643 • Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) first Bourbon – gave up Protestantism • Passed Edict of Nantes – religious toleration • Louis XIII weak; Cardinal Richelieu focused on strong economy • Louis XIV – guided by Mazarin • Thirty Years’ War • L’etatc’estmoi – I am the state • Weakened power of nobles (appointed intendants – gov’t officials) • Colbert - Finance Minister furthered industry, built roads, canals, trading posts in N. America • The Sun King built palace at Versailles • Revoked Edict of Nantes – lost thousands of Protestants which hurt science, culture, etc. • Flowering of French art and literature • Fought costly wars; heavy taxation

  4. Maria Theresa • Austria – 1740 – Hapsburg family • Increased royal power; weakened nobles • Abolished local self-govt. • Seized Church lands, controlling Church • Staunch Catholic • Stopped Prussia from taking Austria

  5. Frederick the Great • Prussia – Hohenzollern family • Autocratic rule – forced to watch friend beheaded as a child • Believed ruler should be like a father • Allowed Junkers (landholding nobility) to be officers in army • Produced strong militaristic state • Took Silesia from Austria (rich in minerals) • Encouraged religions toleration • Fought Seven Years’ War with Britain

  6. Ivan the Terrible • Russia – 1547 • Good period – added lands to Russia, cold of law, ruled justly • Bad period – after wife died – executed many boyars (landowning nobles); used secret police • Killed own son in an argument • Turmoil after Ivan’s death – grandnephew, Michael Romanov began Romanov Dynasty

  7. Peter the Great • Romanov family • Period of serfdom & agriculture • Mongol rule had cut Russia off from Renaissance & Age of Exploration • Visits west and sought western influence • Westernization and modernization of Russia • Introduced potatoes, first newspaper, improved women’s status, encouraged education • Needed warm-water port (Window to the west) • Made men dress like Europeans, shave beards • Modernized and strengthened army • Built St. Petersburg on Baltic coast (after Saint) • Thousands of serfs died from disease, work, etc.

  8. Catherine the Great • Russia – Romanov family • Well educated, well read • Some reform attempts – religious toleration, abolition of torture, capital punishment; most not put into effect though • Crushed peasant rebellions • Gave power to nobles over serfs • Strengthened and expanded Russia