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European monarchs

European monarchs

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European monarchs

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  1. European monarchs Chapter 18

  2. Royal Theories • Absolute Monarch: A ruler with COMPLETE control • Divine Right: God hand-picks those who rule and therefore Monarchs should have complete control – because they are God’s choice

  3. SPAIN • CHARLES I (Charles V) • Hapsburg • Territory included Spain, Low Countries of Belgium, Netherlands, land in Americas • 1519: Holy Roman Emperor “Charles V” • Works closely with RCC, Protestants a direct threat • Declares Martin Luther an Outlaw • Years of War against Protestants

  4. Spain • PEACE OF AUGSBURG: 1555, each German prince right to decide Protestant or Catholic

  5. Spain Splits Empire • 1556: Divides empire between brother and son • Brother took over old Hapsburg holdings in Austria • Son (Phillip II) rules Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, and American colonies • Charles lives rest of life in monastery

  6. SPAIN • 1550 – 1650: Golden Age of Art • El Greco • Diego Velázquez • Miguel de Cervantes

  7. SPAIN • PHILLIP II • Devout Catholic, leader of Counter Reformation • Married to Mary I of England • Clashed with Protestants in Low Countries (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg)

  8. Spain • 1560’s: Revolt! Dutch refuse to declare allegiance • “Court of Blood” with Duke of Alba • 1609: Seven northern provinces become Netherlands, southern remain in Spain’s hands

  9. SPAIN • England assists Dutch in Revolt • Spanish Armada: Spain’s fleet of ships sent to invade England • Fire Ships! • After loss, several more ships lost on trip around England

  10. Spain loses power due to • Phillip’s government too centralized • Trusted no one • No industries – only money from New World • Bankrupt 4 times

  11. Think… How did Spain vast empire affect the varied people they controlled? How did Phillip II trying to maintain power affect the People?

  12. FRANCE • HUGUENOT: French protestant • Henry of Navarre = HENRY IV • Wedding in Paris leads to • SAINT BARTHOLOMEW’S DAY MASSACRE • 10,000-70,000 Huguenots killed

  13. Henry of Navarre lives! • Escaped death by denying religion • “Paris is well worth a mass”  HENRY IV • EDICT OF NANTES: right to worship, hold office, rule where Huguenots are in majority

  14. FRANCE • Young Louis XIII weak leader • Cardinal Richelieu • Chief minister and most trusted adviser • Determined to strengthen monarchy

  15. Edict & Revocation of Nantes Read the Edict of Nantes and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes Answer guided Questions

  16. To strengthen Monarchy Richelieu… • Cut off Port city of La Rochelle • 14 months, until starving citizens surrendered • Ordered walls to be torn down • Turn all churches Catholic • Punished Nobles for Revolts • Sided with Protestants in 30 Years war to undermine Hapsburg power La Rochelle’s defeat was a signal to all Protestants to GET OUT of France!

  17. FRANCE • LOUIS XIV • “I am the State” (didn’t need Cardinal’s help) • Sun King • ABSOLUTE POWER: Louis in charge of all military, political, economic initiatives

  18. I lost my voice  I can’t talk very loud so I need you to be quiet so I can talk and you can hear me. Today’s agenda: Watch “Elizabeth” clip View page 539, answer question Read pages 540-544 Answer Reading checks, Cardinal Richelieu, Economics, 1-3

  19. How did Louis XIV deprive Nobles power? • Deprived Nobles of influence • Versailles (forced Nobles to come to him) • Influenced dress, dining and gambling to bankrupt nobles • Revokes Edict of Nantes, outlaws Protestantism • 200,000 Huguenots flee

  20. WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION • 1701 • Spanish King died, Louis wants throne for his son • Other monarchs didn’t want this connection • England, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire fought France • TREATY OF UTRECHT: • Louis’s Grandson gets throne, but France and Spain can’t be ruled by same monarchs

  21. Think… How did French Monarchs try to maintain power, and how did this affect the People? Huguenots? Nobles?

  22. ENGLAND • Elizabeth I & Parliament • Parliament passed laws favoring Protestantism • Parliament pressured her to marry • Allowed MP’s speak their minds without fear of punishment • Called 10 times in 45 years • Still an absolute ruler Robert Dudley Queen’s Favorite Duke of Anjou Possible Marriage

  23. ENGLAND • Elizabeth died with no heir • Mary Queen of Scots (Elizabeth’s cousin) was put to death for trying to overthrow Elizabeth • Her son was King of Scotland • James I • First Stuart to rule • Believed firmly in DIVINE RIGHT and ABSOLUTE MONARCHY • Trouble with Parliament • Country in debt, viewed as “outsider” from Scotland

  24. James I • PURITANS: strict Calvinists demanding further reform from Church of England, take power away from Church officials • James I sees Puritans as threat • Refuses most requests of reforms • Puritans flee to New World • (Pilgrims!)

  25. ENGLAND • Charles I • Popular until marrying a Catholic Princess • Requested money from Parliament • Parliament refuses unless Charles I signs: • PETITION OF RIGHT: placed limits on king’s power • King can not levy taxes without consent of Parliament • Direct Challenge to:

  26. Charles I • Taxed without permission • Dismisses Parliament when they become outraged • 1629: Charles will rule without Parliament • (example of Absolute Monarchy)

  27. ENGLAND • 1640: Charles I in debt thanks to rebellions in Scotland • Has to reconvene Parliament to ask for money • “Long Session” did not disband for many years • After being ignored for 11 years MPs demanded Parliament be called at least once every 3 years

  28. ENGLAND • Puritans moved to abolish the appointment of bishops in Anglican Church • Charles I led troops into House of Commons to arrest Puritan leaders for Treason • Already escaped • Charles’ intentions shown: to take back power • Parliament rises up against king • Charles I supported by people • 1642: Civil War began!

  29. English Civil War • ROYALISTS: nobles who supported king • ROUNDHEADS: supporters of Parliament • Puritans, Merchants, some upper classes • Led by: OLIVER CROMWELL

  30. ENGLAND • Royalist Army outmatched • 1646, surrender • Oliver Cromwell dismisses all Parliament members who disagree with him • Rump Parliament

  31. English Civil War Label and analyze the Map of the English Civil War Answer guided questions

  32. ENGLAND • Rump Parliament tries Charles I for treason • Charles refuses to recognize Parliament’s authority • Found guilty, Executed in front of own palace

  33. Lord Protector Cromwell • House of Commons outlaws House of Lords and Monarchy • England becomes a Commonwealth • Cromwell: “Lord Protector of England, Scotland, Ireland” • Demanded complete obedience

  34. ENGLAND • RESTORATION • Cromwell dies, son, Richard, weak leader • Parliament reconvenes and vote to bring back monarchy • 1660: Parliament invites Charles’ son to be king

  35. Restoration & Charles II • Charles II • Supported religious toleration • Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 • “may you have body” • Guarantees right to appear in court to see if accused should be held or released • 1665: Bubonic Plague returns, killing 100,000+ Charles being presented the first pineapple grown in England Columbian Exchange!

  36. ENGLAND • JAMES II • Charles II brother • Married to a catholic whose Catholic sons outrank James’ protestant daughters • GLORIOUS REVOLUTION • 1688: Nobles invited James’ daughter Mary and her husband William to become King & Queen

  37. Glorious Revolution William and Mary Had to sign: ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS: prevents monarchs from levying taxes without Parliament’s consent Creating a: CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY: monarchy limited by law

  38. The Glorious Revolution Read about William & Mary and the Glorious Revolution Answer Guided Questions


  40. Think… How did English monarchs’ willingness or unwillingness to work with Parliament affect the People? English Civil War? English Bill of Rights?

  41. RUSSIA • 1500’s Russia far behind western Europe in technology, centralized government • Run by church officials and boyars • BOYARS: landowners • 1546: Young prince claims title CZAR • CZAR: (version of Caesar) Emperor

  42. Ivan IV • Early Reforms: • general council included merchants and lower level nobles • promoted military officers on merit • reduced Boyars power • Expanded borders and increased trade

  43. Ivan IV  TERRIBLE! • Ivan the Terrible • 1560s: Ivan changes • Became suspicious of his closest advisors • Created a private police force to punish opposition • 1565: seized land from 12,000 boyars • Killed thousands in Novgorod, suspected they wanted to separate from Russia • 1581: killed his own son

  44. Russia • “Time of Troubles” many rulers because of lack of heir • 1613: Michael crowned czar– first Romanov

  45. RUSSIA • Peter I • 1682: became czar as child, sister ruled until he was 17 • Labored side-by-side with thousands of carpenters building a navy • Takes Azov from Turks with navy

  46. Peter the Great • Realizes Russia needs to Modernize • WESTERNIZATION: bringing elements of the western culture to Russia • 1697: journeyed to Europe in disguise to learn hands-on skills and recruit experts to Russia

  47. RUSSIA • Reforms: • brought Church under state control • Built up Russian industry • Started first newspaper • Sponsored new schools • Modernized the calendar • Promoted officials based on service • Early 1700s: fights Sweden for a warm-water port • St. Petersburg • Becomes new capital

  48. RUSSIA • 1761: Peter III becomes Czar • His wife, Catherine grew angry at his weak rule • Peter III murdered • Catherine II becomes “Czarina” • Catherine the Great’s Reforms: • Removed restrictions on trade • Updated Russia’s legal and education system • Promoted Science and Arts

  49. Catherine the Great • War and revolt led Catherine to strengthen the authority of the monarchy • Reorganized local governments • Put administration in hands of landowners and nobles • Reduced taxes as thank you, and gave them absolute control

  50. Think… How different it must have been to be a Russian under Ivan, Peter, or Catherine. How would each experience be different?