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English Monarchs

English Monarchs

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English Monarchs

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  1. English Monarchs From The Battle of Hastings (1066) to the Battle of Bosworth Field (1485)

  2. Conquest • William the Conquerer (William I) • 1066-1087 • William II (called Rufus) • 1087-1100 • William I’s second son – the eldest got Normandy • Henry I • 1100-1135 • William I’s third son • Great ruler who consolidates powere • Leaves a daughter (Matilda), a nephew (Stephen), and an illegitimate son (Robert, Earl of Gloucester)

  3. Struggle between cousins • Matilda claims throne but never crowned – Civil War • Marries Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of Anjou • Brother Robert, husband Geoffrey, and son Henry lead her armies • Stephen • 1135-1154 • Passes throne to Matilda’s son Henry Plantagenet rather than to his own son

  4. Plantagenet dynasty 1154- • Henry II • Son of Geoffrey and Matilda • 1154-1189 • Marries of Eleanor of Acquitaine • “Lion in Winter” • Richard I • 1189-1199 • “Lion-hearted” Crusader king • John (nicknamed Lackland) • 1199-1216 • Richard’s brother – never popular – forced to sign Magna Carta

  5. Next Plantagenet generation • Henry III • 1216-1272 • Rules at a time when England becomes the center of Plantagenet power and holdings in France become less important to the English • Edward I (nicknamed “longshanks”) • 1272-1307 • Conquers Scotland – called “Hammer of the Scots” – remember the “Braveheart” film • Edward II • 1307-1327 • Loses power b/c promotes not from the upper class

  6. Edward III’s decendants • Edward III • 1327-1377 • Has seven sons! • Succeeded by his grandson b/c he outlives his sons • Rivalries between his sons’ descendants leads to War of Roses in next century • Lancasters (red roses) • Yorks (white roses) • Richard II • 1377-1399 • deposed and murdered by his Lancaster cousin

  7. Lancastrian kings • Henry IV • 1399-1413 • Plagued by the murder that puts him on throne • Henry V • 1413-22 • Battle of Agincourt – 1415 (revolutionizes medieval warfare b/c of invention of longbow) • Sir John Falstaff character from Shakespeare’s histories • Henry VI • 1422-61

  8. York Kings • 2nd Battle of St Albans (1461) – York victory • Edward IV • 1461-83 • Secret first marriage discovered after death, de-legitimizes all his children by Elizabeth Woodville, complete disarray • Richard III • 1483-85 • Believe nothing written about him by a Tudor source, including Shakespeare • Killed at Bosworth Field by French army led by Henry Tutor (who will become Henry VII)