RepublicofKorea • TaeHanMinGuk • Capital: Seoul • Total Population: 48,875,000 (2010) • Total Area: 100,210km2 (109th) 38,691 sq mi • Currency: South Korean Won (￦) • A member of the United Nations, WTO, OECD and G-20 Major Economies • A founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit • Asia’s 4th largest economy and the world’s 15th (nominal) or 12th (purchasing power parity) largest economy
History Timeline GoJoSeon (2333 B.C.?) • Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea • Buyeo • Okjeo • Dongye • Samhan • Three Kingdoms of Korea • Goguryeo • Baekje • Silla Unified Silla & Balhae • Goryeo • The peninsula was united by • Emperor Taejo of Goryeo in 936 Joseon -General Yi-Seong-Gye rebelled in 1388 Tae Han Jae Guk Tae Han Min Guk(Republic of Korea)
Jo-Seon • King Tae-jo moved the capital to Seoul. • The first 200 years of Joseon was relatively peaceful. • King Se-jong the Great published the creating of Hangul on October 9th, 1446 • - Korean are still celebrating the day. • - UNESCO King Sejong Literary Prize: was created in 1989. It honors the outstanding contribution made to literacy over 500 years ago. It rewards the activities of governments or NGOs displaying merit and achieving particularly effective results in literacy.
Jo-Seon • Between 1592 and 1598, The Japanese invaded Korea • - was eventually repelled • In the 1620s, Joseon suffered from invasions by the Manchu. • After series of wars against Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace • King Yeongjo and King Jeongjopartucularly led a new renaissance of the Joseon.
Jo-Seon • The latter years of the Joseon were marked by a dependence on China for external affairs and isolation from the outside world. During the 19th century, Korea’s isolationist policy earned it the name the “Hermit Kingdom.” • Joseon tried to protect itself against Western imperialism, but was eventually forced to open trade. • After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan for 30 years.
History (After Division) • At the end of WWII, the Japanese surrendered to Soviet and U.S. forces who occupied the northern and southern halves of Korea. (1948) • On June 25th, 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea, sparking the Korean War, the Cold War’s first major conflict. • - After huge advances on both sides, and massive losses among Korean civilians in both north and south, the war eventually reached a stalemate • - The 1953 armistice, never signed by South Korea, split the peninsula along the demilitarized zone(DMZ). • - No peace treaty was ever signed, resulting in the two countries remaining technically at war.
History (After Division) • In 1960, a student uprising (the “4.19 revolution”) led to the resignation of the autocratic President Lee Sungman. • A period of political instability followed, broken by General Park Chunghee’s military coup(the “5.16 coup d’etat’”) • Park too over as president until his assassination in 1979, overseeing rapid export-led economic growth as well as severe political repression. • - Park was heavily criticized as a ruthless military dictator, though Korean economy developed significantly during his tenure.
History (After Division) • After Park’s assassination, General Chun Doohwan led Coup d’etat of Dec. Twelfth • - banned political activities • - expanded martial law closed universities • - curtailed the press • - When people in Gwangju triggered nationwide protests demanding democracy Chun sent special forces to violently suppress the Gwangju Democratization Movement. • Eventually Chun’s party leader, RohTaewoo announced 6.29 Declaration, which included the direct election of the president. • RohTaewoo became a president.
History (After Division) • In 1988, Seoul hosted the 1988 summer Olympics and became a member of the OECD in 1996. • Korea was adversely affected by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. • - had to repay $57 billion owed to the International Monetary Fund in emergency rescue funds. • - Gold Collection Campaign - next slide • - With the effort of citizens, Korea was able to recover and continue its economic growth.
Gold Collection Campaign • - Koreans queuing to donate their treasures like wedding rings, gold medals and trophies, gold “luck” keys and presents • one day, more than 45,000 people turned in 7,300pounds of gold worth $33 million. This campaign grew fast so next day, 88,500 people donated 15,044 pounds of gold worth $66 million. • Many private companies also joined the campaign.
History (After Division) • In 2000, president Kim DaeJung’s “Sunshine Policy” successfully engaged in a North-South summit in Pyongyang. Later, Kim received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work for democracy and human rights in general and reconciliation with North Korea in particular.
Hangeul written in Hangul Korean Alphabet) • The Koreans are one ethnic family speaking one language and have a strong cultural, national identity as one ethnic family. • Hangul is the only language invented. • It is only language registered in UNESCO for its highly scientific value.
Consonants G (orK) N D Vowels O I A
Consonants (14 in total) Vowels (21 in total)
Example 1 Write “MiKa” in Korean K a M i ㅁ ㅋ ㅏ l
Example 2 키이쓰 Keith Sky 스카이 Steve 스티브 레이 Ray Christine 크리스틴
Government • Three Branches • - executive, legislative and judicial • Local Governments • - various ministries in the executive branch carry out local functions. • - semi-autonomous • Structure is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea. • Series of military dictatorships 1960s-1980s, but developed into a successful liberal democracy
Capital - Seoul Fly to Seoul Boom BoomBoom – 2pm • Population of Seoul: 10,421,782 (Over half of south Koreans live • A s the headquarters for Samsung, LG, Hyundai, Kia and SK Seoul has become a major business hub. • Although Seoul accounts for only 0.6% of South Korea’s land area, it generates 21% of the country’s GDP
The Great Gates The major gates in the wall that surrounded Seoul during the Joseon Dynasty Dongdaemun “Great East Gate” Seodaemun “Great West Gate” Namdaemun “Great South Gate”
Cheongyecheon Teheran Ave Banpo-gyo at Han River
Insadong Dongdaemun National Museum
World Cup Seasons!! In 2002, South Korea and Japan jointly co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Since then, Koreans’ interest in World Cup greatly increased. They eventually came up with a special cheering culture. I interviewed an American who lived in Korea during 2002 World Cup and 2006 World Cup. He said that even though he is not Korean, if you are there, anyone is cheering for Korean team. It seems Koreans know how to purely enjoy this event.
Cuisine • - Korean cuisine originated fromancient prehistoric traditions in the Korean peninsula evolving through a complex interaction of environmental, political, and cultural trends. • - Largely based upon rice, vegetables, and meats. • Traditional Korean meals are noted for the number of side dishes that accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. • Kimchi is served often, sometimes at every meal.
Food Bulgogi Kimchi Seolleong-tang Naengmyeon
Dolsotbap Hanjeongsik Tteok-Bokki
Traditional Games • Participants would dance under the brightest full moon of the year in order to bring about a good harvest. • In the 16th century, during the Japanese invasion of Korea, women in military uniform danced ganggangsullae on Mount Okmae. • The Japanese scouts thus overestimated the strength of the Korean troops. GangGangSullae : Hold hands and go round
Etiquette • Eating • Offer to pour other’s drinks before you pour your drinks • If you deny to pour for someone, it will be offensive • It is polite to pass or accept food or drink with your right hand while your left hand supports your forearm/wrist • Wait to be told where to sit • The eldest are served first and start eating process • Refuse the first offer of second helpings • Finish everything on the plate
Etiquette • Body Language • Never touch, pat or backslap a Korean who is not your relatives or close friend • Never point with your index finger • NEVER, NEVER touch a Korean’s head • Receive gifts with two hands when the giver is older than you • If you are the one accepting the gift, refuse a couple of times, before agreeing to have it; if you ultimately decide not to take the gift, the giver will be very insulted.
Etiquette • Greeting (and saying bye to) • For elder, keep both legs straight and together, put both arms stiffly by your side, keep your back straight, and bend from the waist. Keep the head down and do not look at the elder. • Bow not too fast or slow and say, “An Nyung Ha SaeYo” • Don’t squeeze hard when shaking hands • Koreans avoid saying “no,” so “yes,” may not mean “yes”
Folk Music Arirang (아리랑) • A Korean flok song, sometimes considered the unofficial national anthem of Korea. • Is an ancient native Korean word with no direct modern meaning • Consist of 9 Verse. • Many variations of the song exist – are usually prefixed by their place of origin. • JeongSeonArirang has been sung in for more than 600 years Refrain: Arirnang, Arirang, Arariyo, Arirang Pass is the long road you go. 1st Verse: If you leave and forsake me, my own, Ere three miles you go, lame you’ll have grown 3rd Verse: Arirang Mount is my Tear-Falling Hill, So seeking my love, I cannot stay still. http://www.usarmyband.com/Audio/army_strings_audio_downloads.html 4th Verse: The brightest of stars stud the sky so blue; Deep in my bosom burns bitterest rue.
Fusion Music - Koreans are trying hard to be more familiar with their own music. As a result of it, they began to make Modern music melody with Korean traditional instruments. Example 1) Example 2) Example 3) Example 4) Example 5)
K-Pop • An abbreviation of Korean pop • A musical genre consisting of electropop, hip hop, pop, rock, and R&B music originating in South Korea. • It has grown into a popular subculture among teenagers and young adults around the world. • Though the presence of Facebook, iTunes, Twitter and YouTube, K-pop reached to a previously inaccessible audience via the Internet BoA TVXQ (popular in Japan) Girl’s Generation Beige KARA F(x) Bigbang Rain
Hanbok - Vibrant colors - Simple lines without pockets - People wear during traditional festivals and celebrations. - Modern hanbok does not exactly follow the actual style as worn in old days. It went through some major changes during the 20th century for practical reasons.
Architecture During Neolithic-Period huts (reconstructed) Korean Dolmens (UNESCO World Heritage)
Religious Architecture Chongnim Temple Pagoda, one of the oldest surviving pagodas Baekje Bulguk Temple (UNESCO World Heritage) Seokguram, Silla, (UNESCO World Heritage)
Architecture Gyeongbok Palace - the largest of the Five Grand Palaces built during the Joseon.
Royal Architecture Cheonmseongdae, Royal observtory. Anapji Poseokjeong (Pavilion of Stone Abalone), A Grand Royal Garden
Bibliography • http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/south-korea-country-profile.html • http://www.economist.com/topics/south-korea