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What is APA format?

What is APA format?

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What is APA format?

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  1. What is APA format? APA Publication Manual 5th Edition!

  2. APA Format is a standardized way of presenting research results • Consistent • Indexed (of sorts) • Alphabetical • Chronological • Identifiable Find more at

  3. General Requirements • White paper • 12 point black type • One-inch margin all around (minimum *) • Page Header is a brief title with the number of the page at the top right hand corner (in a word processing header) • double spaced (quote exceptions allowed *) • Encyclopedias (paper, cd-rom, web) are prohibited! Seek the original source! *

  4. Major Sections • Title Page • Abstract page (< 120 words) • Title again over start of body of paper • Subheadings allowed • Body of paper • References • Appendixes • tables, figure captions, figures follow main paper

  5. Title Page – TOP! Running Head(CAPS): + Second Descriptor app 2” from top edge of paper Brief descriptor + 5-7 spaces + Number Causes of Stress 1 Running head: PHYSICAL COMPONENTS OF STRESS The running head identifies the article for the reader. Fifty characters max. Appears only on the title page Put in word processor “header”. Select “insert page number to autocount the pages

  6. Centered on Paper Title Page - middle Full title of Paper Your Name Your Institution

  7. Centered on Paper at bottom of page Title Page – bottom* Name of Class Semester Class Time Instructor Name

  8. Title Page - Full Layout Page Header 1 Running Head Title, subtitle, Author, Institution Preferred CCACC data:Class name, date, professor

  9. Page 2 - Abstract • An abstract is a summary of the problem (issue), findings, and recommendations made throughout the entire paper. • Abstracts are available of EbscoHost and at ERIC Inf. On the web. • Format

  10. Abstract - Format • The problem or topic • The purpose • The findings • The sources used • The conclusion Abstract The causes of stress are as many and varied as the people who experience the symptomsof stress. Stress is one of the leading reasonsthat people seek medical help. In 1997, over 41% of physician visits were related to stress (Winsome, 1998). Blah, Blah, Blah.

  11. Body of Paper - Content Introduction: What is interesting? History and build rationale for conducting study. Method: Participants, Apparatus, Materials, Design, and Procedure Results: Summarize data and statistics Discussion: Evaluates and interprets the results.

  12. Body of Paper - Content • Organization - structured • Outline apparent through paper • In-text referencing (Author’s Last Name, year of publication) • Correct written grammar • Spell-checked!

  13. References • Alphabetical by last name(letter by letter) • Chronological within author(earliest is first) • If same year, add = a,b,c to citation • Anonymous only used if signed as such • Web based journal articles & books require full citation plus the web address and other identifying information.

  14. References References Able, C. (1991). XXXXXXX Able, C. (1995a). YYYYYYY Able, C. (1995b). ZZZZZZZZ

  15. Two Main Types of References • Periodical References • Journals • Magazines • Newspaper • Non-Periodical References • Books • Reports • Brochures

  16. 5th Edition Change: Writing a Reference • Published Style • First line is backspaced (5-7) spaces • Second and consecutive lines are indented 5 spaces from the left margin • In Word, Type the reference, then select ‘hanging indent”. It should automatically move the second line in. (customize by putting hanging indent on the task bar) • Book titles and Journal names are italicized.

  17. Writing A Reference • PUBLISHED STYLE Anderson, J. (1999). The bell curve. Boston: West Publishing. Margin

  18. 1. Author Lastname, First Initial. (period!) • Things to Note: • Only the initial of the author’s first and second name... • Only an “&” ampersand is used with multiple authors in the reference section. If used as part of a sentence the word ‘and’ is used. • Edition is abbreviated ed. • Editor is abbreviated Ed.

  19. 2. Date • Parentheses placed around the date, a period at the end. (1999). YEAR, MONTH, DAY format is used Ex. A magazine in the reference section: (2000, July 23).

  20. 3. Book Name / Article Title • Only the first letter is Capitalized • First letter of subtitle is Capitalized • Book & Journal titles areitalicizedbut the (3rd. ed.) is not. • Books always use a period. • Journals are followed with a comma, vol, nnn-nnn(page numbers). See details later…

  21. 4. Book - City of Publisher • City: • If City is not well know, then add a comma and the State (and Country if needed). • State uses standard postal abbreviations (PA, WI, OH):

  22. 5: Book - Publisher • The name of the Publisher and a period. Author, M. (1999). This is the book title. Johnstown, PA: Wilson Publishers.

  23. Italicize! 4. Journal Article Red text is italicized • Journals are followed with a comma, volume (Number), pages. • The words Volume & Number are never used. • Ex. - each issue starts with page 1 Monitor on Psychology, 32 (7), 17. • Ex. – each issue continues the paging from the beginning of the volumeAmerican Psychologist, 56, 585-586. • Only use p. or pp. when a periodical does not have a volume number - ref:

  24. Documents from the Internet • Many different documents are available • Journals • Newspapers • Books • Government report • Brochure • garbage

  25. On the Net II • APA Minimums: • Document title, a date, a source location (URL), and the author(s). • Steps: • 1. Determine the type of web page. • 2. Find the title, the date, the author, the publisher. • 3. Hint: If you can’t find the above information you must question the source !!!!!!!!!!!!!! • 4. Hint: back up through the URL to find the needed information: http:/

  26. On the Net III • An article published on the web: Healthy Eating. (1999, July 17). Barriers to closing the diet gap. Retrieved July 22, 2001 from articles/july01/dietgap.html • NOTE: No period after the URL!

  27. On the Net IV • Electronic copy of a journal on the net: Whitcome, R., List, T., Wilson, K. & rogers, J. (2001). A snitch in time: A review of the proximity of a Crimestopper reporter to the perpetrator. Journal of Criminal Behavior, 66, 222-243. Retrieved September 4, 2001 from Ebscohost database [Masterfile] at Note that the article includes the printed page numbers

  28. On the Net V • A message posted to a list (even though you get it in email form): Russet, P. (1998, October 12). TLRT: Messaging across the internet [Message AAHESGIT #119]. Message posted to • Great Article - but no author, no date (help!) APA writes: GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from Above retrieved October 24, 2001 from

  29. On the Net VI • An abstract retrieved from the web, a summary, a review: • Retrieved from… becomes: • Abstract retrieved from… • Summary retrieved from… • Review retrieved from…. etc.

  30. Finding the Author! • A URL can often yield up the author of the article if you do a little searching: • The Article is titled: Synesthesia: Phenomenology and neuropsychology. A review of current knowledge. • Back up through the directories – each directory on the computer is separated with a slash. The Author’s name, the date it was published to the web, and the web publisher can be found on the pages in the directory above the directory that holds your article.

  31. Post Note • If you are serious about getting APA format down to a science (sorry!) you should purchase you very own copy of the 5th edition of the APA Publication Manual. It will serve you well over the next 4-7 years. • Do not get confused by looking at the edition date of another English or research reference book that contains a summary of the elements of the APA publication manual. Often these books have APA 4th or worse APA 3rd edition information. Look for this black & red book…