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Cytogenetics in Humans

Cytogenetics in Humans

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Cytogenetics in Humans

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  1. Cytogenetics in Humans Marie Černá

  2. Chromosome

  3. Chromosome On each chromosome • is apparent the centromere as a primary constriction • dividing the chromosome into two arms – a short arm p(for petit) a long arm q Chromosomes are classified by their length the position of the centromere into four types: • metacentric • submetacentric • acrocentric (satellites attached to short arms) • telocentric (do not occur in humans)

  4. Karyotype Haploid: 1n chromosome complement 23 chromosomes (gamete) Diploid: 2n chromosome complement 46 chromosomes (somatic cell) Human karyotype: • 46, XY - male • 46, XX - female Chromosome - homologous: autosomes heterologous: sex chromosomes

  5. Human karyotype

  6. Cell cycle interphase • G1 (Gap 1) • S phase (DNA synthesis) • G2 (Gap 2) M mitosis

  7. Mitosis

  8. Meiosis

  9. Gamete maturation

  10. Barr body

  11. Literature Biology, eighth edition, Campbell, Reece Unit three: Genetics Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Concept 15.1, 15.2, 15.3. Pages 286 – 296