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World Religions

World Religions

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World Religions

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  1. World Religions

  2. Religion • Def. The belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power • A set of beliefs and practices

  3. Classifications • Religions are divided into one of three groups: • Universalizing: Anyone can become a part of the belief system • Actively work to convert people to their religion • Ethnic: Part of a particular ethnic or political group • Must be born into the ethnic group • Tribal: Ethnic religions that are practiced by smaller, local groups.

  4. Which religion is most practiced in the world? Which religion is the least practiced in the world? Which parts of the world do you think these religions are mostly practiced in?

  5. Use the map to answer the questions: 4. Which religions are primarily practiced in North and South America? 5. Which religions are mostly practiced in Africa? 6. Europe? 7. Asia? 8. Australia?

  6. WARNING Don’t be a jerk!

  7. Hinduism • One of the world’s oldest religions • Ethnic • Mostly practiced in India and Nepal • Polytheistic: The belief in many gods. • Have thousands of gods • Holy Book: Bhagavad-Gita and Vedas • Holy People: Priests speak to the gods for the people • The people sacrifice to the gods through the priests • Place of Worship: Temples • Many Hindus also have shrines in their homes to worship a particular god or goddess

  8. Hinduism Beliefs • Reincarnation: Rebirth of the soul in another form • Karma: All actions of a person’s life affect his or her fate in the next life. • Dharma: Religious and moral duties • Nonviolence: All things are apart of the universe and deserve respect • Life Purpose: To achieve moksha, to be one with the universe. • Allows someone to be released from the cycle of reincarnation.

  9. Hierarchy of reincarnation (based on karma)

  10. Buddhism • Universalizing • Primarily practiced in East Asia • Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (600 b.c.) • Buddha = “The Enlightened One” • Non-theistic: No god • Believe in seeking and discovering the truth for one’s self. • Holy Book:Tripitaka • A collection of Buddha’s teachings • Holy People: Monks; spend their lives devoted to providing an example by living a moral life dedicated to meditation • Place of worship: At a temple or at home • Will have a shrine to worship at home

  11. Buddhism Beliefs • Nonviolence: A person must respect all living creatures • Karma and Dharma • Life Purpose: To reach nirvana, to have union with the universe. • Once nirvana is reached, the person will be released from the cycle of reincarnation. • Can achieve this by believing in the Four Noble Truths and following the Eightfold Path

  12. Eightfold Path Four Noble Truths • Right understanding • Right intention • Right speech • Right action • Right livelihood • Right effort • Right mindfulness • Right concentration All people suffer All suffering comes from desire People can end their sufferings by eliminating desires You can eliminate desire by following the Eightfold Path

  13. Religions of Abraham • Monotheistic: the belief in one God. • Based on the heritage of Abraham • Judaism • Christianity • Islam

  14. Judaism • Oldest monotheistic religion • Ethnic • Holy Book: Torah (5 five books of the Bible) • Ten Commandments • Holy People: Priests (from the tribe of Levi) performed the religious sacrifices. • Prophets: People chosen by God to deliver the message to the people • Rabbis: A Jewish scholar and teacher • Place of worship: Synagogue • Afterlife: The souls of the righteous will go to heaven • The souls of the wicked will be tormented by demons

  15. Jewish History

  16. Judaism Beliefs • God is eternal, one, created all things • God knows the thoughts and deeds of people and will reward or punish those people • There is a special relationship between the people of Israel (Jewish people) and God • Must follow the commands/laws of God given to the people through Moses • The Messiah will come and restore the temple and end evil in the world • The dead will be resurrected

  17. Psalm 23 What does the text say about God? What does the text say about people? What is the overall message of the excerpt?

  18. Christianity • Originates from Judaism • Universalizing • Holy Book: The Bible (Old and New Testament) • Holy People: Jesus Christ the Messiah • The Trinity: Father, Son, Holy Spirit • Place of worship: Church or cathedral • Afterlife: Must believe in Jesus to get to heaven, others will spend eternity in hell.

  19. Christian History

  20. Christian Beliefs • Jesus Christ is the son of God • Perfect: Without sin • Died on the cross to atone for the world’s sins • Resurrected on the third day after his death • Once believing this, the person will receive the Holy Spirit which is God within them.

  21. John 3 What does the text say about God? What does the text say about people? What is the overall message of the excerpt?

  22. Islam • Originates around 600 a.d. • Universalizing • Holy Book: The Qur'an (also spelled Koran) • Holy People: Muhammad the last and greatest prophet • Believe that Adam, Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus were also prophets of Allah (God) • Imam: Religious leader, will lead prayer in the mosque • Place of worship: Mosque • Afterlife: There will be a day of judgment where every human will be judged on whether they go to paradise or hell

  23. Muslim History

  24. Islam Beliefs • Complete submission to Allah • Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet from God. • 5 Pillars must be followed in order to live a good life • Declaration of Faith • Pray five times a day (facing Mecca) • Be charitable to the poor • Fast during the month of Ramadan • Pilgrimage to Mecca

  25. The Opening What does the text say about God? What does the text say about people? What is the overall message of the excerpt?

  26. The importance of Jerusalem Judaism: Christianity: Islam: