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Unit 2: Enlightenment and French revolution

Unit 2: Enlightenment and French revolution

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Unit 2: Enlightenment and French revolution

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  1. Unit 2: Enlightenment and French revolution

  2. What were some of the ideas/Themes of the enlightenment? Based on what we learned yesterday, does an absolute monarchy support these beliefs?

  3. absolutism

  4. Absolutism • 17th and 18th Century political theory that suited the absolute monarchs of the time and justified the ABSOLUTE and ORGANIC rule of all aspects of society through a monarchy • Absolute Monarchy • Kings or queens who believed that all power within their state’s boundaries rested in their hands • Justified through idea of DIVINE RIGHT—idea that God created the monarchy and the monarch acted as God’s representative on earth Absolutism

  5. Principles of Absolutism • Basic Principle: • Ruler has complete power over all aspects of an individual citizen’s life • Political Principle: • King/Queen creates and executes all laws and decisions involved in governing their nation • Social Principle: • Ruler oversees nobility that oversees general population • King/Queen & Nobility on topeveryone else on the bottom Absolutism

  6. Principles of Absolutism (cont.) • Economic Principle: • King/Queen and Nobility oversee the flow and distribution of money • Heavy taxation • Wealth heavily consolidated in the upper class • Cultural Principle: • King/Queen dictate cultural trends and religion • Heavy use of CENSORSHIP ABSOLUTISM

  7. Rise of Absolutism in France • 17th Century France • Pinnacle (height) of power, wealth, and prestige • Oversees exploration and expansion • Cultural and intellectual world leader • Forms of Authority • Monarchy • Estates General • Local Governments absolutism

  8. “L’etat c’est moi” • (“I am the State”) Absolutism • The “Absolute” Louis XVI • Almost single-handedly decided all fates of France during his reign • Heavily taxed his people to build his Palace of Versailles and instigate costly wars • Declining economy due to high expenses • Limited power of nobility by promoting positions of upper-middle class

  9. The “Absolute” Louis XVI • Not religiously tolerant • Revoked Edict of Nantes (1685)granted greater religious freedom to French protestants (Huguenots) Absolutism

  10. The court of Versailles was the centre of political power in France from 1682, when Louis XIV moved from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789 after the beginning of the French Revolution. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. Palace at Versailles or Château de Versailles

  11. The Cost of Building Versailles

  12. What could you buy with 2 billion?

  13. 10-year, $275 million contract (including $30 million dollar bonus if he breaks the all-time home run record) Highest-paid player in sports history PAY ALEX RODRIGUEZ

  14. $15 million One of the nicest private jets in the world BUY A GULFSTREAM JET

  15. $955,500 a piece Comes with everything OPEN 50 NEW MCDONALD’S

  16. $39,400 per piano 1,000 STEINWAY PARLOR GRAND PIANOS

  17. $2.1 million Build one in each state LEBRON JAMES’ MANSION

  18. $346 million Holds 40,000+ people, home of the Phillies BUILD A BASEBALL STADIUM

  19. $1.7 million per car World’s most expensive car Can reach 253 mph 10 Bugatti Veyrons

  20. $250 million Excitement, thrills…and ALL YOURS! BUILD YOUR OWN THEME PARK

  21. …AND YOU STILL HAVE MORE THAN $50 MILLION LEFT!!!

  22. Palace Video Palace at Versailles

  23. Absolutism’s Challenges • All nations in Europe (not) England ruled by Absolutism • People began to resent total control and question DIVINE RIGHT • Renaissance ideals bred discussions of DEMOCRACY • Success of England’s Parliament intrigued many in surrounding nations • Emerging studies in Social Sciences such as psychology and political science generated discussion of how to better rule people Absolutism

  24. The popular French magazine “Louis Life” has chosen you to be its new investigative journalist. Your job is to go undercover and get a sneak peek at the life of Louis XIV at the Palace of Versailles. To do this, you must use the following sources: the video clip we watch in class today; the article we read, and the notes we took in class. Your article will be a series of illustrations (after all, not everyone can read in France). Assignment…

  25. This would be a serious shortcoming for anybody else in the world, but fortunately you can draw very well. You are your group will create a series of sketches that indicate what life is like at the palace. You will create five different drawings, each one outlining a characteristic of Louis XIV (daily procedure, personality, surroundings, etc.) For each sketch you should include: • A sketch showing who is involved and what is going on • Your cartoon’s feelings about the subject (Silly? Useful? Necessary?) • A two-sentence summary explaining each sketch Assignment

  26. The French Revolution

  27. The Beatles? So you say you want a revolution?

  28. Old Regime • Three Estates (social classes) in France • First Estate • Catholic Church Clergy (Bishops, abbots, priests) • 1-2% of population • Did not pay taxes • Paid “free gift” of 2% of income to the king Basic understandings

  29. Old Regime (cont.) • Second Estate • Nobility (Military officials • Court officers) • What % of population? • 2% of the population • Did not pay taxes Basic understandings

  30. Old Regime (cont.) • Third Estate • 97% of the population • Paid all of France’s taxes • Bourgeoisie (doctors, lawyers, bankers, merchants) • Urban Working Class (blacksmith, baker, servant, peddler • Peasants (farmers, homeless and poor, paid “corvee”working tax) Basic understandings

  31. French Revolution simulation

  32. The Estates (social classes) • The Queen needs “taxes” to be paid… • Group #1 - give 2 pieces • Group #3 – give half of food • Group #2 – give nothing • Group 1 – has good amount of food – smallest group (1 person) • Group 2 – has the most food- small group (2 people) • Group 3 – has least food – biggest group

  33. How can we solve it? What’s the Problem?

  34. Each group gets only one vote… Who votes that the third group should pay the most taxes ? Raise your hand. Why is this unfair? What would you do if you were in group 3 and were asked to pay the majority of the taxes? Let’s take a vote on paying taxes

  35. Group 1 – The clergy – paid only low taxes Group 2 – The Rich Nobles – paid almost no taxes Group 3 – The Bourgeoisie (merchants, artisans), cooks, servants and peasants – paid the most taxes Where were most people? Third Estate In France…

  36. The social class inequities in France in the 1700’s led to unrest among the Third Estate. This ultimately led to REVOLUTION! The Result

  37. Causes of the French Revolution

  38. 3 Parts to French Revolution section of Unit

  39. Causes of Revolution • The Enlightenment Ideas • Liberty • Reason • Equality • Progress • Happiness • Philosophe Ideology • Locke defended private property, limited sovereignty, and fair government • Voltaire attacked noble privileges and Church authority French Revolution

  40. Causes of the Revolution (cont.) • The American Revolution • Exhibited (showed) ideas of Enlightenment in action • French soldiers (i.e. Lafayette) that fought were instrumental (key) to inspiring lower-class French citizens • Placed Louis XIV in great debt French Revolution

  41. Causes of the Revolution (cont.) • Failing French Economy • National debt was 4 billion livres • 50 percent of government’s income went to interest on debt • No central bank or paper currency • Inefficient and uneven taxation system (varied by region and estate) French revolution

  42. Causes of the Revolution (cont.) • Feudal System • Estate system outdated • Posed (presented) many difficulties to rising middle class of Third Estate • Difficult to move upward in society (unless very rich) • Less well-off commoners resented the inequality of the three estates French revolution

  43. Causes of the Revolution (cont.) • Louis XVI • Good intentions • Weak-willed • Indecisive • Marie-Antoinette allowed to “dispense patronage amongst friends” French Revolution