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Chapter 6 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 6

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Chapter 6

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  1. Chapter 6 Delay Testing

  2. What is this chapter about? • Introduce delay test concepts, models, and test generation • Provide overview of common delay test approaches • Focus on • Delay test application • Delay fault models • Test generation • High quality delay tests

  3. Introduction to Delay Testing • Introduction • Delay Testing Approaches • Circuit and Delay Models • Delay Test Application • Transition Fault Test • Path Delay Test • Constrained Delay Test • Conclusions

  4. Introduction • Goal of Delay Testing • Primary: Verify circuit timing (e.g. clock frequency) over supply voltage and temperature range • Secondary: Identify marginal circuits that meet specifications

  5. Delay Testing Approaches (1) • Random • Apply random patterns at rated clock speed • Advantages • Can generate patterns on-chip (BIST) • Applied as in normal operation • Fortuitous detection of unmodeled faults • Disadvantages • Poor coverage of long paths • Higher than normal circuit activity (power, noise)

  6. Delay Testing Approaches (2) • Functional • Apply functional patterns at rated clock speed • Advantages • Most accurate test • Chip operating in normal mode • Fortuitous detection of unmodeled faults • Disadvantages • Poor coverage, coverage difficult to compute • High test pattern development cost • High test application cost without large on-chip cache/memory

  7. Delay Testing Approaches (3) • Structural • Use delay fault models and circuit structure to generate tests • Advantages • Automatic test pattern generation • High fault coverage • Easier diagnosis • Disadvantages • Simplifying assumptions in delay fault model • Design for testability (DFT) required for high coverage • Test application very different than normal operation

  8. Primary Inputs (PI) x1, x2,… Primary Outputs (PO) z1, z2,… Pseudo Primary Inputs (PPI) y1, y2,… Pseudo Primary Outputs (PPO) Y1, Y2,… Huffman Sequential Circuit Model

  9. Design Assumptions • Structural delay test of synchronous sequential digital circuits • Delay test of the logic circuits • Gate level primitives, including latches and flip-flops • Most flip-flops and latches are scanned • Embedded memory modeled as black boxes • Test them separately • Same assumptions used in most commercial ATPG tools

  10. Circuit Delay Models (1) • Some delay fault models need circuit delays • Gate delay • Delay from gate input to output • Can have different delays for rising or falling transitions, different inputs to outputs • Interconnect delay lumped with gate • Gate transport delay • Gate delay without interconnect delay • Interconnect propagation delay • Separate delay to each net fanout (gate input)

  11. Circuit Delay Models (2) • Inertial delay • Minimum pulse width that propagates through a gate • Used to analyze glitch generation and propagation • Min-max delay • Abstraction of process variation • Gate and interconnect delay correlations usually not available

  12. Delay Test Application (1) • Launch transitions into circuit from PIs and PPIs (referred to collectively as PIs) • Capture circuit response at POs and PPOs (collectively POs) at specified time • Compare results with correct response • Two-pattern test • Required to launch transitions • First (initialization) vector initializes circuit • Second (test) vector launches transitions

  13. Delay Test Application (2) • How to hold two test vectors in scan chains? • Enhanced scan – holding latch on output of flip-flop • Scan first vector in, transfer to holding latches, scan second vector in, enable on latches launches transitions • Expensive in area and delay, so uncommon • Launch-on-shift (LOS) – also known as skewed load, launch-off-shift • Launch-on-capture (LOC) – also known as broadside test, launch-off-capture

  14. Transition Fault Model • Assumes a large/gross delay is present at a circuit node • Slow-to-rise (STR), slow-to-fall (STF) • Irrespective of which path the effect is propagated, the gross delay defect will be late arriving at an observable point • Most commonly used in industry • Simple and number of faults linear to circuit size • Also needs 2 vectors to test • Node x slow-to-rise (x-STR) can be modeled simply as two stuck-at faults • First time-frame: x/1 needs to be excited • Second time-frame: x/0 needs to be excited and propagated

  15. Launch-on-Shift Approach Last scan-in shift cycle Launch cycle Capture cycle 1 Scan enable Scan-in 0 A Combinational Circuit 1 B Scan-out

  16. Launch-on-Shift Approach Last scan-in shift cycle Launch cycle Capture cycle 1 Scan enable 0 A Combinational Circuit 1 B

  17. Launch-on-Shift Approach Last scan-in shift cycle Launch cycle Capture cycle Scan enable Scan-in 1 A Combinational Circuit 0 B Scan-out

  18. Launch-on-Shift Approach Last scan-in shift cycle Launch cycle Capture cycle Scan enable Scan-in 1 A Combinational Circuit 0 B Scan-out

  19. Launch-on-Capture Approach Last scan-in shift cycle Launch Capture Dummy cycle Scan enable Scan-in 0 A Combinational Circuit 1 B Scan-out

  20. Launch-on-Capture Approach Last scan-in shift cycle Dummy cycle Launch Capture Scan enable Scan-in 0 0 A Combinational Circuit 1 0 B Scan-out

  21. Launch-on-Capture Approach Last scan-in shift cycle Launch Capture Dummy cycle Scan enable Scan-in 0 0 A Combinational Circuit 0 1 B Scan-out

  22. Launch-on-Capture Approach Last scan-in shift cycle Launch Capture Dummy cycle Scan enable Scan-in 0 A Combinational Circuit 0 B Scan-out

  23. 1X X0 Launch-on-Shift Implication Scan-in A Combinational Circuit B C Scan-out

  24. 1X X0 Launch-on-Capture Implication Scan-in A Combinational Circuit B C Scan-out

  25. Test Robustness • Robust test • Detects delay fault independent of circuit delays • Nonrobust test • Detection depends on circuit delays • Functionally sensitizable test • Detection depends on delays on multiple paths

  26. Robustness Examples Nonrobust Robust 0 Functionally Sensitizable

  27. 0 0 x1 0 1 x2 v2v1 1 1 x3 3 y 2 2 3 t=0 t=2 t=7 Transition Fault Test Example

  28. Transition Fault Properties • A transition fault may be launched robustly, non-robustly, or neither • Example: STR at output of OR gate

  29. Transition Fault Properties (cont.) • A transition fault may be propagatedrobustly, non-robustly, or neither • Example: STF at output of gate a

  30. a d b c Untestable Transition Fault • STF on signal d is untestable under Launch on Shift • Second vector needs to be abc=000 • First vector must then be abc=00X

  31. Path Length Comparison (Robust)

  32. Transition Fault Testing with Stuck-At ATPG • Simply treat each transition fault as two stuck-at faults • Node x slow-to-rise (x-STR) can be modeled simply as two stuck-at faults • First time-frame: x/1 needs to be excited • Second time-frame: x/0 needs to be excited and propagated • Use x/0 and x/1 for x-STF • Apply LOC or LOS constraints in ATPG as needed

  33. Path Delay Testing • Path Delay Fault • Delay distributed along path • Could be combination of slow process and spot defects • Classic model • Any path could have any delay • Must test all paths • But infeasibly large number of paths – exponential in circuit size • KLPG – K Longest Paths Per Gate • Test K longest paths through each line, with both rising and falling transition on the line • Linear in circuit size

  34. Test Generation Algorithm Search space Scan cells Scan cells Constraints from outside search space

  35. Start Insert into the partial path store Extend the partial path with longest potential delay Apply heuristics to avoid false paths Apply side inputs and perform direct implications N Y N Conflict? Complete path? Y End Final justification Path Generation Flow

  36. Conflict 0 1 Direct Implication • Detect local conflicts • Most conflicts are local

  37. Heuristic – Forward Trimming • Trim non-solution space immediately • Path generation is guided to find a true path • Large saving if many paths in the logic block Logic Block gi gj 1 1 0

  38. Other Heuristics • Smart PERT • Computes the upper bound of longest testable path more accurately • Relations between gates and global longest path generation • A long path through a gate may be one of the K longest paths through another gate • Reduce repeated work

  39. 7-Value Algebra for Partial Scan x – Unknown u – Uncontrollable

  40. 7-Value Algebra for Partial Scan x – Unknown u – Uncontrollable

  41. Application of 7-Value Algebra M1 u g1 n1 0/u n3 x M2 g2 0/u x n2 n5 n4

  42. Application of 7-Value Algebra M1 u g1 n1 0/u n3 x M2 g2 0/u x n2 n5 n4

  43. 1 1 1 1 Final Justification • Detect global conflicts which cannot be detected by direct implication • Find the vector pair which sensitizes the path • PODEM/FAN based justification algorithm

  44. KLPG-1 Test Set Construction Non-robust test Robust test Long transition fault test A long transition fault test tests longer paths than a regular transition fault test

  45. Pseudo-Functional Testing • Avoids over-testing by scanning in non-functional states • Does not induce excessive circuit switching • Does not exercise functionally infeasible paths • a timing failure due to a functionally infeasible path may not be a true failure and will result in throwing good parts away • Avoid Yield loss

  46. a x b c y d Constrained ATPG • To avoid scanning in functionally unreachable states, constraints can be used • Let (¬x + y) represent a constraint • then abcd={1000, 0100, 1100, 1001, 0101, 1101, 1010, 0110, 1110} are the illegal states

  47. Pair-wise Constraints • Compute constraints via logic implications • Implications for g=0 and g=1 over the time window -t to t (t is user-specified) are first computed and stored • Apply transitive law to identify those implications in the 0th time frame • a implies b (next time-frame), b implies c (previous time-frame), then a implies c (same time-frame) • Remove all combinational implications • Resulting set are functional constraints

  48. Multi-Literal Constraints • [A=1] Λ [B=1]  [F=0] in the next time-frame. • Key: identify x  A (prev time frame) and y  B (prev time frame), then we have (x Λ y)  [F=0] in the same time-frame

  49. Constrained ATPG • Given a set of computed constraints, U • ATPG must not violate any constraint in U during the search • Key: want U to be as comprehensive as possible

  50. Alternative Approach to Pseudo-Functional Testing • Run ATPG without any constraints • Map each generated pattern to a known valid state • Must make sure the modification still detects the target fault • May need to try mapping to different valid states