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Urine Analysis

Urine Analysis

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Urine Analysis

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  1. Urine Analysis Report

  2. Physical Examination • Color (Pale Yellow) • Specific Gravity (1.015-1.030)

  3. Chemical Examination • Reaction pH: (4.5-8.0) • Sugar: (Nil) • Albumin (Nil) • Ketones (Nil) • Bile Salts (trace) • Bile Pigment: (Nil) • Urobilinogen: (Nil) • Blood: (Nil) • WBC: (Nil)

  4. Microscopic Examination • Pus cells (> 10/mm3 ) • RBC (> 2/mm3 ) • Epithelial Cell • Mucus • Cast • Bacteria • Yeast Cells • Crystals( common in cold or old urine) • Uric acid crystals (present in stone formation amorphous)

  5. Color • Normal: Pale yellow • Red : Hematuria • Dark Yellow : Jaundice

  6. Specific Gravity • Normal: 1.015- 1.030 • Increased: DM, Liver Disease, Heart Failure, Acute water Loss. • Decrease: Diabetes Insipidus, Renal Failure.

  7. Reaction pH • Normal: 4.5 – 8.0 • Increased or decreased in acid base balance

  8. Sugar • Normal : Nil • Present: DM , Pregnancy, sepsis, renal tubular damage, low renal threshold.

  9. Albumin • Normal protein excretion < 150mg/dl consisting of < 30mg/dl of Albumin. • Causes of increase excretion: Glomerular or tubular disease, DM, amyloidosis, Inc., heavy metals, multiple myeloma, pregnancy.

  10. Ketones • Normal: unto 1mmol/L (-ve) • May be present in normal urine • Increased in ketoacidosis and starvation.

  11. Bile Salts • Only trace of bile salts are present in urine. • Increased in obstruction of common bile duct , drug induced cholestasis.

  12. Bile Pigments • Present in extra hepatic obstructive jaundice and hepatic jaundice in witch there is obstruction to bile flow.

  13. Urobilinogen • Normally present in urine due to metabolism of bilirubin in the gut by bacteria and subsequent absorption. Increased in pre hepatic jaundice.

  14. Test Performed • Color: Naked eye examination. • Specific Gravity apparatus • Reaction: pH meter • Protein: Heat coagulation test. • Sugar: Benedict’s test. • Ketone Bodies: Rothera’s Nitroprusside test. • Bile Salts: Hay’s surface tension test. • Bile Pigment: Iodine ring test.

  15. Pus Cells • > 10/mm3 is abnormal • Cause UTI

  16. RBC • > 2/mm3 is abnormal • Causes; Glomerulonephritis, infection,trauma ,calculi, neoplasia.

  17. Cast • Cylindrical bodies formed in the lumin of distal tubules. • Increased in fever renal failure , exeercise, use of loop diuretics, inflammation. • Common in cold or old urine

  18. Crystals • Common in cold or old urine. • Important in stone formation.

  19. Urine Analysis Reporting • To prepare a urine report you must have a clear view about the relevant practicals. • All the practical regarding normal and abnormal constituents of urine must be performed and discussed thoroughly. • As the performance of these tests is time consuming so now a days urine reporting is performed in labs by using dipstick methods which gives relatively more acuracy and it save time.

  20. Dip Stick Method • In this method we take a dip stick and urine sample. • Dip it in urine and weight for a while • Now note the color changes and match it with indicator • Now interpret the formalities and abnormalities of urine sample