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Course in Molecular Biology

Course in Molecular Biology

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Course in Molecular Biology

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  1. Course in Molecular Biology Leuven, October – November 2002 Program • Basics of molecular biology • Transcription • Translation • Regulatory pathways • DNA and diseases • Biotechnology

  2. Lesson 1: Basics of molecular biology I. The Cell’s Organization II. Cell Cycle and Cell Division III. Cellular Molecules IV. The Genetic Dogma

  3. The Cell’s Organization

  4. PROKARYOTES EUKARYOTES All organisms: 1 or more cells

  5. The animal cell

  6. A plant cell

  7. A bacterium

  8. The Main Functions of the Membrane-bounded Compartments of a Eukaryotic Cell

  9. Compartimentation of the eukaryote cell: various organelles

  10. Nucleolus: Ribosome building machine Protein factories in the cytoplasm Cell nucleus Contains genetic information: DNA

  11. Each human cell contains 46 chromosomes (except sperm or egg cells)

  12. Chromosomes in a cell that is about to divide

  13. ADP glucose Pi O2 CO2 ATP H2O Mitochondria: factories of energy

  14. smooth (metabolism+synthesis of lipids) The endoplasmic reticulum rough (protein synthesis)

  15. The Golgi apparatus trans cis medial  processing of secretory proteins  sorting cellular proteins

  16. Inside the cytosol: the cytoskeleton • “microtubules” • maintainance of cell shape and mobility • ancor for other cellular structures

  17. Presentation: DNA

  18. Cell Cycle and Cell Division

  19. Some Eukaryotic Cell-Cycle Times

  20. The eukaryotic cell cycle

  21. Separation of sister chromatides during mitosis (mitosis = normal cell division)

  22. Microtubuli: assist chromosomes during cell division (mitosis)

  23. Different stages of the M phase during cell division (mitosis)

  24. The three DNA sequence elements needed to produce a eukaryotic chromosome that can be replicated and then segregated at mitosis

  25. Kinetochores and kinetochore microtubules

  26. Gametogenesis: meiosis (= specialized form of cell division giving rise to sperm and egg cells) Meiosis I

  27. Meiosis I (continued) Meiosis II Cell division without DNA replication  Haploid cell

  28. Presentation: Chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis

  29. Cellular Molecules

  30. The four main families of small organic molecules in cells

  31. Macromolecules are abundant in cells

  32. The general reaction by which a macromolecule is made Condensation reaction: H2O molecule is released

  33. The four main families of small organic molecules in cells

  34. Glucose, a simple sugar

  35. Monosaccharides

  36. Sugar ring formation in aqueous solution

  37. Disaccharides: formed by two sugar monomers

  38. Oligo- and polysaccharides

  39. Complex oligosaccharides

  40. The four main families of small organic molecules in cells

  41. Phospholipid structure and orientation of phospholipids in membranes

  42. The four main families of small organic molecules in cells

  43. A simple amino acid: alanine

  44. A small part of a large protein molecule

  45. The four main families of small organic molecules in cells