Chapter 16 Commercial Agriculture
Where it from • Colonial powers commercialized the agriculture products and sold it even back to the colonized countries • With transportation evolved, new market scenarios exist. But the influence of the colonial powers still prevails in several countries. Such as, Ghanaians grow cacas, Mozambiquans raise cotton and Sri Lankans produce tea
Economic embargo • Wealthy importing countries can threaten the very survival of the economics of the producers (such as Cuba, Iraq, N. Korea…) • Vice Versa, OPEC in 1970, but difficult.
Cotton and Rubber • Expansion cotton plantation due to the colonial powers in 19th century. Now, the developing countries still grow cotton and exported to developed countries. • Rubber grows in Amazon Basin and Congo Basin, later seedlings were planted, especially in Southeast Asia. Now 90% of rubber from Malaya and Indonesia. With the booming auto-industry, the rubber demand increases. In WWII, Japan controlled the Southeast stimulated the development of synthetic rubber, now more than 60% are synthetic and the remaining 20% are from Southeast Asia. (For environmental and labor reasons, Southeast Asia was chosen for the development of rubber plantation)
Luxury Crops • Similar Environmental and labor reason led the colonist establish huge plantation in various regions for various luxury crops such as tea, cacao, coffee and tobacco. • Coffee was first planted in Ethiopia. Now, Middle and South America produce 70% of the coffee of the world and US imports more than half of all the coffee sold on world markets annually and Western Europe takes most of the rest.
Coffee Story • Ninth Century--First record of coffee drinking by the Mufti people of Aden (Legend has it that the ubiquitous bean made its way to Yemen from Ethiopia by traveling merchants through trade routes across the Gulf of Aden)15th Century--Extensive planting of coffee in YemenLate 16th Century--Priests petition Pope Clement VIII to ban the evil drinking of coffee (he refuses--probably a closet coffee lover)17th Century--First coffee house opened in London (Trivia--coffeehouses became known as "penny universities" because a person could buy a cup of joe for 1 cent and learn more at the coffee house than in class! London Stock Exchange grew from a coffee house) • 1656--Coffee drinking prohibited & coffeehouses closed in Turkey by the Grand Vizir of the Ottoman Empire (penalty for drinking coffee: a dunk in the Bosphorus in a leather satchel!)
1669--Coffee becomes popular in Europe after Turkish ambassador to France introduces Louis XIV to the magic brew1674--Women's Petition Against Coffee established in London1686--First cafe serving coffee is opened in Paris (Le Procope--it's still in business!)1690--Coffee introduced in Java (pardon the pun!)18th Century--More coffeehouses in London than there are today1714--Coffee takes root in the Americas (seedlings shipped to Martinique in the West Indies)1822--First espresso machine made in France1908--Melitta Bentz, a housewife from Dresden, invents the first coffee filter1909--Instant coffee first marketed1940--Coffee production quotas established by an Inter-American Coffee Board1962--Coffee export quotas established worldwide by the UN1970s--Coffee hits the big leagues as Joe DiMaggio endorses "Mr. Coffee"1989--World coffee prices plunge1991--The origin of Java (The programming language developed by Sun)
Luxury Crops - 2 • Tea was grown in China perhaps 2000 years ago. It became popular in Europe in 19th century. • The British established enormous tea plantations in Asia and sold in European market.
Tea Story • Believed to have been discovered by Shen Nong (Divine Farmer), 2500 BC. boiling fresh leaves directly in water • Tang Dynasty (620-907 AD)- Tea comes of age - due to 1) strong Tang Economy 2) promotion by tea master Lu Yu 3) Promotion and lifestyle of Buddhist monks and Taoist priests, Brick Tea - tea leaves were steamed, powered, and then formed into cake. Tea was introduced to Japan with the philosophy of Tao (the Way) later Japan developed a elaborate tea ceremony cha-no-yu or “the way of tea”
Tea too • Song Dynasty (908-1276AD) - Loose tea was accepted and became popular • Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) - Loose tea replaced powered tea and oolong and black tea planted in Fujian. Best teapot - Yixing purple clay, when fired forms micropores and chain-shaped pores which allows for better brews because they absorb the flavor and keep the water hot • England - seventeenth century, The East India Company brought back teas from China. In 19th century, with promotion from Queen’s Anne, tea drinking became a high-class social enjoyment.
Tea - 3 • With the English domination of the sea trade and the Chinese Close Door policy, tea trade became the world's largest trade monopoly. The secret of growing tea was kept such a secret that no one in Europe knew that all variety of teas come from the same species of plant. The Chinese monopoly also created the largest trade imbalance which lead to the tragic Opium Wars in 1840 and 1857-1860 between England and China, in which the English sought to legalize opium trade to counterbalance the trade deficit. As a result China lost control of its trading outpost, Hong Kong.
The Reign of English Tea Empire • Tea and India -- With the interest in tea growing in Europe, and China keeping a close door policy, English botanist sand entrepeneurs fervously look for alternative sites to grow tea. And when there is a will there is a way. Two major breakthroughs occured. Firstly, the Assam variety, native to India was discovered in 1824. Secondly, a botanist successfully stole a tea plant from China. • These breakthroughs created tea giants like Sir Thomas Lipton, and Twining and was the beginning of the world black tea trade.
Green Tea and Human Health • prevents cancer • restricts the increase of blood cholesterol • controls high blood pressure • lowers the blood sugar level • Green tea suppresses aging • Green tea refreshes the body • Green tea deters food poisoning • stops cavities and • fights virus
Tea Ceremony • The Japanese custom of drinking green tea came from China about 800 AD. The use of tea started when Buddhist monks, who had gone to China for study, returned to Japan bringing tea with them as a medicinal beverage.
Chinese Tea Ceremony • "The Chinese tea ceremony, unlike the Japanese tea ceremony, emphasizes the tea, rather than the ceremony," What the tea tastes like, smells like, and how one tea tastes compared to the previous tea, or in successive rounds of drinking -- that is what participants of the Chinese tea ceremony are most concerned with.
Plantation Agriculture (7 in figure 16-1) • Middle and South America - bananas, sugar, coffee, and cocoa • West and East Africa-rubber, cocoa, and tea • South Asia - tea • Southeast Asia - rubber • They still grow these plantation after the colonization period. It’s an important source of income for the government who took over the control
Commercial Agriculture • The largest areas of commercial agr. -outside the tropics • US -the largest rice exporter followed by Thailand and Vietnam
Impact of Changing Agr. Practice • Shifts from Subsistence to commercial agriculture, impacts in industrialized regions - a) increased mechanization b)consolidation of smaller farms to larger corporate units c)increased crop specialization • Impacts in other regions a) Latin America -increase in the production of cash crops (fruit or coffee) at the expense of local consumption, and subsistence farming being pushed to the marginal lands b) Asia, with “Green Revolution”, increase in domestic and foreign market production of rice and wheat, c) In Africa, commercialized agr, increased but exports decreased,. Both Asia and Africa, small scale units and labor intensive farming.
Green Revolution-3rd Agr. Rev. • Started in 1960s, Philippino research crossed a Chinese rice with Indonesian variety and produced IR8 rice with bigger head of grain and stronger stem. In 1982, they produced IR36, the most widely grown crop on Earth • IR36-mixed from 13 parents genetic resistance against 15 pests and growing cycle of 110 days which makes three crops per year possible. • Charting of genome (12 chromosomes) is ongoing, it will eventually increase the production and develop the resistance to diseases and pests
World Distribution of Ag. (fig. 16-1) • History, Tradition, Environment and Technology shape the world of Ag. • Move out of subsistence Agr. Control family size in many countries • Soviet Union and China - collective farms and agriculture communes. A disaster in human history • Farm production oriented to 1/5 of wealthy, powerful and urbanized population. • Fertilizer Consumption
The Silk Road - major channel between China and Europe - map link North - westward to Black Sea  Central - Westward to Persia, Mediterranean Sea, Rome  Southern route - Westward to Afghanistan, Iran, India  Eastward to Xian
The greatest East-West trade rout for cross-cultural exchange - named in the mid-19th century by German Scholar - Baron Ferdinand von Richthonfen • General Zhang Qian traveled from Xian to recruit the Yueh-chih who were looking for ally to combat Xiongnu (200 BC) • Chinese poem
DunHunag - the Thousand Buddha Cave • On 22 June 1900, when the Taoist priest Wang Yuanlu was removing sand from cave 16, he discovered the world famous Dunhuang Library Cave (now cave 17) on the northern wall of the corridor. It contained a great number of the scrolls of Buddhist writings, old administrative papers, embroidered work and paintings. All these relics amounted to over 45 000 pieces dating from the 3rd to the 11th century. They provide invaluable background for the study of politics, economics, military affairs, culture, religion, literature, music, dance, calligraphy, architecture and medical science in the old times.