Leadership I for fire and ems: strategies for company success DecisionMaking styles
OBJECTIVES The students will: • Differentiate among the three decisionmaking styles and the five processes identified. • Match appropriate decisionmaking styles to given situations using the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model. • Cite the advantages and potential disadvantages of group decisionmaking.
OVERVIEW • Introduction to Decisionmaking • The Leader's Role in Decisionmaking • Selecting the Right Style • Using Groups Effectively • Characteristics of Effective Decisionmakers • Three Decisionmaking Principles
Making Choices DECISIONMAKING
Decisionmaking is the process of deliberation, which leads to a final course of action.
THE DECISIONMAKING PROCESS • Define the problem • Collect information • Generate alternatives • Evaluate alternatives • Select (decide)
IMPORTANCE • How many are affected? • Will the decision impact on mission, goals, etc? • What would be the consequences of a bad decision?
TYPES OF NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES • Physical harm • Psychological harm • Loss of money or misuse of money • Loss of leadership credibility • Decreased productivity • Decreased morale • Negative impact on mission
EFFECTIVE DECISIONS ARE BASED ON A LOGICAL PROCESS • Deductive • Intuitive • Combination
THE LEADER'S ROLE • "Controlling the processes by which decisions are made in that part of the organization for which he or she is responsible." • – Victor Vroom
THE LEADER'S ROLE (cont'd) • Leaders control decisionmaking processes by determining the amount and type of opportunity afforded subordinates to participate in the decision.
Style A: Autocratic "We are going to adopt these standards."
Well, I wanted to see what you thought about it. When will you decide? Style C: Consulting
Style G: Group Process I'm glad we were able to work this out together.
CONSENSUS • Equal opportunity to give opinions • All suggestions carefully considered • Everyone committed to final decision • No voting
The leader retains ultimate responsibility and accountability in all styles.
CONSIDERATIONS • Do you have a reasonable amount of time to make the decision? • Does the leader have the expertise to make a quality decision? • Do subordinates have enough expertise/information to make a quality decision?
CONSIDERATIONS (cont'd) • Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be accomplished by solving the problem? • Is the decision area complex, with many possible solutions? • Are acceptance of the decision and commitment of subordinates critical?
CONSIDERATIONS (cont'd) • Is the decision likely to cause conflict among subordinates? • Will the decision directly impact most subordinates? • Will the decision directly impact only a select few?
nine GUIDELINES • Guideline 1--Time • Guideline 2--Leader Expertise • Guideline 3--Subordinate Expertise • Guideline 4--Goal Compatibility • Guideline 5--Degree of Complexity
nine GUIDELINES (cont'd) • Guideline 6--Commitment • Guideline 7--Commitment with Conflict • Guideline 8--Group Consequence • Guideline 9--Individual Consequence
Style C GROUP DECISIONMAKING
GROUP DECISIONMAKING (cont'd) Responsibilities of Company Officer (CO) • Set the stage • Make sure group understands their role • Make sure everyone understands what "consensus" means
Greater potential for knowledge Diversity of ideas More thorough, comprehensive analysis Greater understanding of final decision Group acceptance of decision Increased motivation Stress reduction Professional growth ADVANTAGES OF GROUP DECISIONMAKING
DISADVANTAGES OF GROUP DECISIONMAKING • Time-consuming • Indecision • Compromise may not lead to best decision • Domination by individuals • Counterproductive conflict • Hidden agendas
LEADER AS FACILITATOR • Set time limit • Use brainstorming or Nominal Group Techniques (NGT) • Be a good gatekeeper--ensure equal input • No personal attacks • Play "devil's advocate" • Ask "what if" questions
Characteristics of EFFECTIVE DECISIONMAKERS • Not "born" • Not "lucky" • Success is a composite of • Knowledge • Skills • Personal attributes
Synoptic Dissatisfied Sensitive Catalytic Opportunistic Skill-directed Innovative Forward thinking Resourceful Evaluative Expedient Courageous MARVIN'S CHARACTERIZATION
THREE DECISIONMAKING PRINCIPLES • Make the decision • Implement and evaluate • Realize that you cannot satisfy everyone
SUMMARY • Decisionmaking affects/overlaps all other functions • Rational choices • Qualities of effective decisionmakers