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Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer — Lesson 20

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Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer — Lesson 20

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  1. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer — Lesson 20 Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer, 4th Edition Chapter 20 — Incident Scene Operations

  2. Learning Objectives 1. Recall each of the elements of the Layman Decision-Making Model. 2. Select facts about the application of size-up theory to three specific time periods. 3. Recognize condition indicators that may be present at a structure fire. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  3. Learning Objectives 4. Identify facts about operational implementation. 5. Define various operational modes. 6. Select facts about various operational modes. 7. Recall facts about apparatus placement and positioning at structural fire scenes. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  4. Learning Objectives 8. Select from a list guidelines for positioning apparatus at wildland fire scenes. 9. Identify considerations for positioning apparatus at hazardous materials incidents. 10. Recall facts about positioning apparatus at high-rise incidents. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  5. Learning Objectives 11. Select from a list guidelines for the placement and positioning of apparatus at technical rescue incidents. 12. Identify considerations for positioning apparatus at aircraft incidents. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  6. Learning Objectives 13. Choose correct facts about positioning apparatus at medical incidents. 14. Identify the incident termination activities of the Company Officer. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  7. Layman Decision-Making Model • Emergency scene priorities • Life safety • Isolate and/or resolve problem • Property conservation (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  8. Layman Decision-Making Model • RECEO-VS • Rescue • Exposures • Confinement • Extinguishment • Overhaul • Ventilation • Salvage (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  9. Layman Decision-Making Model • Rescue – Identifies the fire safety aspect of emergency incident priorities • Safety requirements • Evacuation • Shelter in place (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  10. Layman Decision-Making Model • Exposures – The need to limit an emergency incident to the property or area of origin • Confinement – The need to confine an emergency incident to the smallest possible area within property of origin (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  11. Layman Decision-Making Model • Extinguishment – The activities needed to resolve an emergency incident • Overhaul – The activities that restore an incident scene to a condition that is as nearly normal as possible (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  12. Layman Decision-Making Model • Ventilation — The activities that control or modify the environment • Fire suppression • Hazardous materials • Timing floats • Mechanisms • Types • HVAC (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  13. Layman Decision-Making Model • Salvage – All actions taken to protect structures and contents from preventable damage Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  14. Size-Up Application • Preincident • On arrival • During the incident Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  15. Size-Up Application: Preincident • Use preincident plans if available • Before an alarm, note: • Traffic • Weather • Construction (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  16. Size-Up Application: Preincident • While responding, note: • Time of day — Weather, occupants’ activities, traffic • Building preplan if available • Likely fire behavior • Information from telecommunications (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  17. Size-Up Application: Preincident • On arrival • Condition report/arrival report • Communicate plan to all on-scene personnel via radio and formally assume command. • Answer the question, “Can the resources at the scene and en route handle this situation?” (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  18. Size-Up Application: Preincident • Phoenix model simplified: • Risk a lot to save a lot. • Risk a little to save a little. • Risk nothing to save nothing. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  19. Size-Up Application: During the Incident • Phase between arrival and resolution • Duration may be a few minutes or much longer. • As situation worsens or improves, initial decisions may not remain valid. • Constant reassessment is critical. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  20. Size-Up Application: Condition Indicators • Vary widely depending on type of incident • Include structural fire indicators: • Smoke • Air track • Heat • Flame color Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  21. Structural Fire Condition Indicators: Smoke • Color and density • Volume and location • Height of the neutral plane Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  22. Structural Fire Condition Indicators: Air Track • Movement of fresh air toward base of fire and of smoke and heated air out of compartment • Velocity and direction • Pulsations • Noise Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  23. Structural Fire Condition Indicators: Heat • Blackened glass • Crazed glass • Blistered paint • Sudden heat buildup Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  24. Structural Fire Condition Indicators: Flame Color • Yellow • Reddish-orange • Light yellow to clear • Blue Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  25. Operational Implementation: Goals and Objectives • Strategic goals • Tactical objectives Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  26. Operational Implementation: Command Activities • Nothing showing • Fast-attack • Command • Combat command • Formal command • Correct transfer of command Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  27. Operational Implementation: Operational Modes • Offensive • Defensive • Transitional Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  28. Offensive Operational Mode • Structure fire variables • Nonfire rescue incidents Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  29. Defensive Operational Mode • Justifications at structural fire incidents • Use at rescue incidents • Should not be attempted concurrently with offensive mode (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  30. Defensive Operational Mode • At rescue incidents • Use when likelihood of victim survival is low. • Conduct slowly and carefully without putting personnel in undue risk. • Generally should not be attempted concurrently with offensive mode • Shift from defensive to offensive mode may be referred to as transitional attack mode; do not confuse with transitional operational mode. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  31. Transitional Operational Mode • Necessitated by rapid change in hazard • Must be orderly • Inform all personnel. • Keep units in place to protect withdrawal. • Track personnel and account for them. • Do not abandon hoselines unless absolutely necessary. • Have rapid intervention crew ready. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  32. Operational Implementation: Additional Resource Allocation • IAP should anticipate need for additional resources. • Resources may be: • Held in reserve • Used to relieve fatigued units • Assigned tactical objectives Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  33. Apparatus Placement and Positioning • Goal is to get vehicles that need to be closest to operation into position. • Can be applied to most types of incidents based on operational mode • Placement of apparatus is always company officer’s responsibility. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  34. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Structural Fires • Place vehicles that are directly involved in fire suppression where they can support operations. • Position aerial devices for quick deployment. • Place support vehicles in staging area. • Place command vehicles where they will be out of the way but still provide good view of one or two sides of emergency scene. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  35. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Wildland Fires • Use amber flashers on roadway or shoulder; mark front and rear with traffic cones. • Park in a designated safety zone; do not leave unattended. • Park on windward side of fire. • Avoid blocking access ways with hoselines. • Do not park next to or under hazards. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  36. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Wildland Fires • Use wheel chocks when parked. • Keep compartment and cab doors closed and windows rolled up. • Ensure that fire hose bed covers are capable of protecting fire hose. • Ensure that a fire protection hoseline is connected and available for rapid deployment. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  37. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Wildland Fires • Maintain communication/coordination with the rest of the fireground organization. • Lay supply hoselines only on road shoulders. • Do not lock doors or leave the apparatus unattended. • Place the air-conditioning system in recirculation mode. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  38. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Wildland Fires • Leave the engine running and maintain a high engine idle to reduce stalling. • Keep headlights turned on. • Do not remove or deploy nonessential equipment from the apparatus. • Remain on the burned side of the fireline. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  39. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Hazardous Materials • Consider: • Danger to personnel • Type of hazard • Topography • Weather conditions (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  40. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Hazardous Materials • Consider: • Incident location • Operational mode • Available resources • Level of training (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  41. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Hazardous Materials • Park upwind and uphill whenever possible. • Position away from downed power lines damaged. transformers, or escaping flammable gas. • Place for easy and quick repositioning. • Position so hoselines can protect route of egress. • Consider slope of ground and wind direction. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  42. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: High-Rise Incidents • Factors • Limited ground-level access • Intermediate parking garage areas • Below-grade mechanical spaces • Windows that cannot be opened • Landscaping or other barriers • Limited street frontage • Building setbacks (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  43. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: High-Rise Incidents • First arriving company officer should: • Determine location and type of emergency. • Select appropriate operational mode. • Establish lobby command post. • Ensure initial apparatus placement provides best access without creating barriers. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  44. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: High-Rise Incidents • Follow organizational policies. • Unneeded apparatus should drop off equipment at base location and park at staging area. • Apparatus at fire department connections should not block access to structure. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  45. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Technical Rescue • Position rescue apparatus nearest to incident. • Locate fire-suppression apparatus in staging area. • Park between an incident and oncoming traffic when the incident is on or adjacent to a roadway or bridge. • Park close enough to the incident to ensure its equipment is readily available. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  46. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Technical Rescue • Do not position so close to the incident that it exposes victims or emergency responders to vehicle exhaust, vibration, or noise. • Allow access for ambulances and other emergency vehicles and normal flow of traffic when the incident is not in the roadway. • Coordinate closely with on-scene law enforcement to address safety issues for emergency personnel, victims, bystanders, and other traffic. Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  47. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Aircraft Incidents • Standard emergency response for normal aircraft activities • Approaching • Landing • Taxiing • Taking off • Parked • Unannounced emergency response — Onsite or offsite aircraft accidents that occur without warning (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  48. Apparatus Placement and Positioning: Aircraft Incidents • Federal Aviation Administration emergency levels • Alert I — Approaching aircraft in minor difficulty • Alert II — Approaching aircraft in major difficulty • Alert III — Aircraft involved in accident Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  49. Aircraft Incidents: Standard Emergency Response • Aircraft crew notifies airport of emergency before landing. • Apparatus assume predetermined runway standby positions • Structural fire-fighting units • Communicate with air traffic control tower (ATCT) • Do not enter site until given permission (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

  50. Aircraft Incidents: Standard Emergency Response • Consider the slope of the ground and wind direction. • Do not block the entry to or exit from the emergency site. • Place and stagger several apparatus on the shoulder of a taxiway. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer