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River Systems

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  1. River Systems

  2. I. Water Distribution 1.36 billion cubic km of water 97.2% oceans 2.15% glacial ice 0.65% lakes, streams, ground water

  3. II. The Hydrologic Cycle • Precipitation

  4. The Hydrologic Cycle 2) Evaporation-Transpiration

  5. The Hydrologic Cycle 3) Infiltration

  6. The Hydrologic Cycle 4) Runoff

  7. The Hydrologic Cycle 5) Runoff

  8. III. Stream Flow A. Terms

  9. III. Stream Flow • Terms 1. Laminar vs. Turbulent

  10. III. Stream Flow • Terms 1. Laminar vs. Turbulent

  11. III. Stream Flow • Terms 2. Velocity, Area, Discharge

  12. Water Velocity

  13. Area

  14. Discharge

  15. Discharge Discharge = Velocity x Area

  16. Discharge Discharge = Velocity x Area Q = V x A

  17. III. Stream Flow • Terms 3. Gradient

  18. III. Stream Flow • Terms 3. Gradient Rise = Vertical drop of the stream Run Horizontal Distance

  19. Rise = Vertical drop of the stream Run Horizontal Distance

  20. III. Stream Flow B. Downstream Trends 1. gradient 2. width and depth 3. discharge 4. velocity

  21. III. Stream Flow B. Downstream Trends a. gradient  b. width and depth c. discharge d. velocity

  22. III. Stream Flow B. Downstream Trends a. gradient  b. width and depth  c. discharge d. velocity

  23. III. Stream Flow B. Downstream Trends a. gradient  b. width and depth  c. discharge  d. velocity

  24. III. Stream Flow B. Downstream Trends a. gradient  b. width and depth  c. discharge  d. velocity 

  25. III. Work of Running Water A. Erosion

  26. III. Work of Running Water 1) Sheet flow A. Erosion

  27. III. Work of Running Water 1) Sheet flow 2) Rill flow A. Erosion

  28. 3) Stream (gully) flow

  29. III. Work of Running Water B. Transportation 1) dissolved load

  30. B. Transportation 1) dissolved load 2) suspended load

  31. B. Transportation 1) dissolved load 2) suspended load 3) bedload

  32. Bed load – • Rolling • Sliding • Saltation

  33. Saltation

  34. IV. Features of Streams

  35. IV. Features of Streams A) Waterfalls and Rapids

  36. IV. Features of Streams B) Meanders

  37. Cutbanks Pointbars

  38. IV. Features of Streams C) Pointbars

  39. IV. Features of Streams D) Cutbanks

  40. IV. Features of Streams

  41. IV. Features of Streams E. Oxbow lakes