Chapter 8-1 The War of Independence
Chapter 8-1 “The War Begins” • General Thomas Gage (Gov. of Mass.) 1. Believed that the minutemen were preparing for war. 2. Gage’s spies reported that there were guns and powder in Concord Village. 3. Gage ordered 700 British soldiers to march from Boston to Concord and seize the weapons. (20 miles) Minutemen: volunteers that were ready to fight at a minutes notice.
First Shot at Lexington • Colonial spies reported the British troops leaving Boston. April 18, 1775. • Paul Revere and William Dawes galloped through the countryside spreading the word, “the British are coming” • Captain John Parker and 70 minutemen gathered in front of a tavern in Lexington. A village on the road to Concord. • As the British arrived, the minutemen headed for cover. A shot was fired. When the shooting stopped eight minutemen lay dead or wounded. • Each blamed the other for firing the first shot.
Midnight Riders Paul Revere William Dawes
From Concord to Boston • At Concord the Redcoats (British) only found a couple small cannons. • Frustrated, they marched back to Boston. On the way back to Boston the British were under constant attack. (Ambush, Hit-n-Run) • By the time the British reached Boston 74 were killed and 200 wounded. • Americans killed: 49, wounded: 41.
The Second Continental Congress • Met in Philadelphia on May 10,1775. • Created a Continental Army. • Appointed George Washington as commander in chief of the Continental Army.
Early Battles • An invasion of Canada by the Continental Army failed when Canada refused to fight the British. • The Battle of Bunker Hill proved that the colonists could fight and stop the British soldiers. More than 1,000 British died compared to 400 Americans. • A week after Bunker Hill , Washington arrived in Boston to take command. He brought heavy artillery with him. (59 loaded cannons) On March 4, 1776, the Americans surrounded the city with cannons. The British abandoned Boston.