WATER POLLUTION CONTROL IWRM for River Basin Organisations.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Basis of pollution control for water resources management • Approaches and steps for pollution control • Explore management interventions, tools and instruments available • To understand appropriate incentives to manage pollution
Introduction • Water resources management related maintenance of adequate quantities of water of adequate quality; • Water pollution control is probably the least effective WRM function; • Pollution problem worsening with urbanisation, industrialisation, population growth.
Discussion • Why does pollution generate little practical action? • What is the significance of pollution issues in your basin? Are the main polluters known? • How much resources are committed to pollution control?
What are my water management objectives? • Measure the extent of the pollution problem and the progress being made. • Ensure major polluters are known and are managed through a licensing or permit system.
Problem Identification and prioritisation • Assessment of trends (for both water quality and in water requirements) • Identify problem areas that require intervention • Prioritise water quality problems • Economic impact • Human health impact • Severity of pollution • Geographical extent of impact • Duration of impact • Size and degradability of pollution
Groundwater protection • Not always apparent that damage has been, or is being, done to the groundwater resource • Clean-up of groundwater pollution is expensive and takes long • Makes high proportion of water resources being used • Identify threat to groundwater identified • large or small • point or diffuse sources • conservative and degradable pollutants
POLLUTION CONTROL POLICY • Policy statements regarding water pollution control may be scattered; • environmental legislation • water resources management • Public health regulation • Policies are political intentions and have real impact on practical management of pollution
Principles for water pollution control • Prevent pollution than treating pollution • Use the precautionary principle • Apply the polluter-pays-principle • Apply realistic standards and regulations • Balance economic and regulatory instruments • Apply participatory approach at the lowest appropriate level • Establish mechanisms for cross-sectoral integration
Identify Pollution control • Two major categories of pollution • Point pollution • Non-point/diffuse pollution • Control options • Effluent/emission control • Water body controls • Water body is complex • Non-point discharges in particular require coordination with other sectors
Management Interventions • Appropriate interventions • Policy and legislation making • Basin planning and sector co-ordination measures • Preparation/adjustment of regulations • Updating of management instruments • Monitoring. • Enforcement of legislation. • Training and information dissemination • Define long-term objectives
Analysis of present capacity • Potential and constraints • Suitable institutional framework • Number and suitability of staff • Availability of relevant new staff • Availability of financial resources • Training needs for staff • Relationship between basin management and political administration at RBO level.
Pollution Control Plan • Action plan • Development of an enabling environment, i.e. a policies, national legislation, regulations and local by-laws • Development of institutional framework to allow for interaction and action close pollution source • Actions for enhancing planning and prioritisation and application of management capabilities for RBO decide on alternative actions and effect change.
Implementation • Pollution control will have no significance if the management plan is not implemented • Phased implementation may be necessary • Indicator for monitoring the progress
Management tools and instruments • Regulations, management procedures and by-laws • Water quality standards • Economic instruments • Monitoring systems • Discharge permitting • Water quality modelling tools • Environmental impact assessment
Typical Permitting conditions • Standard of wastewater discharge permitted • Maximum allowable volume (per day and per hour) • Monitoring of wastewater quality and flow • Record keeping and reporting requirements • Charges to defray RBO costs for monitoring and inspections • Relevant conditions depending on circumstances
Financing implementation • Where does the money come from?
How are you doing in your basin? • Is the extent and seriousness of surface and ground water pollution known? • Are polluters licensed according to the regulations? • Is there compliance with pollution permits/ licenses?