Topic 3: Thermal physics 3.1 Thermal concepts

# Topic 3: Thermal physics 3.1 Thermal concepts

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## Topic 3: Thermal physics 3.1 Thermal concepts

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1. 3.1.1 State that temperature determines the direction of thermal energy transfer between two objects. 3.1.2 State the relation between the Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperature. 3.1.3 State that the internal energy of a substance is the total potential energy and random kinetic energy of the molecules of the substance. 3.1.4 Explain and distinguish between the macroscopic concepts of temperature, internal energy and thermal energy (heat). 3.1.5 Define mole and molar mass. 3.1.6 Define the Avogadro constant. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts

2. State that the internal energy of a substance is the total potential energy and random kinetic energy of the molecules of the substance. All substances are composed of individual molecules that are in vibration. As we heat up the substance the vibrations become more energetic. This is an increasein the kinetic energy of the molecules. But at the same time, as the heat energy is being added the molecules are also moving farther apart. This is an increasein the potential energy of the substance. The two energies together are called the internal energy of the substance. When thermal energy (heat) is added to a substance it is stored as internal energy. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts

3. Explain and distinguish between the macroscopic concepts of temperature, internal energy and thermal energy (heat). The following chart depicts the internal energies of a substance as it is heated up. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts Total Internal Energy Kinetic Energy Potential Energy (due to inter-molecular forces) Think of Hooke’s law F = -kx and phase change The thermometer measures internal kinetic energy

4. State that temperature determines the direction of thermal energy transfer between two objects. Heat is transferred from a warmer object to a colder object through the vibrational action of the molecules connecting the two, as illustrated here. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts H O T H O T C O L D Direction of heatflow

5. 100°C 80°C 60°C 12 9 3 6 20°C 40°C 60°C State that temperature determines the direction of thermal energy transfer between two objects. Consider a material that acts as a conductor of heat from the hot object to the cold object. As you may expect, during the process the hot object loses energy and cools, while the cold object gains energy and warms. At the end of the process the two ends have reached thermal equilibrium at which point there is no more net transfer of heat. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts Direction of heatflow

6. State the relation between the Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperature. Because absorption of thermal energy (heat) causes materials to expand, thermometers can be used to measure the temperature of a substance. Since water is a readily-avail- able substance that can be frozen, and boiled within a narrow range of temperatures, thermometers are usually calibrated against these two temperatures. We will be using the Celsius scale in physics because it is a simpler scale. Temperature only reveals internal kinetic energy. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts Boiling 100° 212° FAHRENHEIT SCALE CELSIUS SCALE Freezing 0° 32°

7. 20 10 30 0 State the relation between the Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperature. When gas is heated in an enclosed space its pressure increases. The following experiment plots pressure vs. temperature in Celsius. We can extrapolate the graph. Now we repeat using different gases. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts p T (°C) 200 0 300 100 -200 -100 -300

8. p T (°C) 200 0 300 100 -200 -100 -300 State the relation between the Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperature. The lowest pressure that can exist is zero. Perhaps surprisingly, the temperature at which any gas attains a pressure of zero is the same. The Celsius temperature at which the pressure is zero (for all gases) is -273 °C. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts -273.15 °C

9. p T (°C) 200 0 300 100 -200 -100 -300 State the relation between the Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperature. Because the lowest pressure that can exist is zero, this temperature is the lowest temperature that can exist, and it is called absolute zero. A new temperature scale that has absolute zero as its lowest value is called the Kelvin temperaturescale. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts 0° C 273 K CELSIUS SCALE KELVIN SCALE -273.15 °C Absolute zero 0 K -273°C

10. relation between Kelvin and Celsius T(K) = T(°C) + 273 State the relation between the Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperature. The simple relationship between the Kelvin and Celsius scales is given here: Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts FYI Note that there is no degree symbol on Kelvin temperatures. 0° C 273 K • EXAMPLE: Convert 100°C to Kelvin, and 100 K to C°. • SOLUTION: • T(K) = T(°C) + 273 T = 100 + 273 = 373 K • 100 = T(°C) + 273 T = -173°C CELSIUS SCALE KELVIN SCALE Absolute zero 0 K -273°C

11. definition of mole and molar mass 1 mole is the number of atoms of an element that will have a mass in grams equal to its gram atomic weight. Define mole and molar mass. If you are familiar with the periodic table of the elements you will recall that each element has certain numbers associated with it. We define the mole of a homogeneous substance as follows: Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts • EXAMPLE: What is the mass in kilograms of one mole of carbon atoms? • SOLUTION: • From the periodic table we see that it is just 1 mole C = 12.011 grams = 0.012011 kg.

12. the Avagadro number NA = 6.021023 molecules. Define the Avogadro constant. It turns out the a mole of carbon (12 g) and a mole of phosphorus (31 g) have the same number of atoms. PRACTICE: What is the molar mass of phosphorus in kilograms? From the periodic table we see that the atomic weight of phosphorus is 30.973762 grams. The molar mass in kilograms is 0.030973762 kg. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts • EXAMPLE: How many atoms of P are there in 31 g of it? • SOLUTION: • There are 6.021023 atoms of P in 31 g of it.

13. Define mole and molar mass. PRACTICE: Water is made up of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom and has a molecular formula given by H2O. Find (a) the gram atomic weight of water, (b) the mass in grams of 1 mole of water, and (c) how many moles of hydrogen and oxygen there are in 1 mole of water. (a) The GAW of H2O is given by 2(1.00794) + 1(15.9994) = 18.01528 g per mole. (b) Thus the mass of 1 mole of H2O is 18.01528 g. (c) Since each mole of H2O has 2H and 1O, there are 2 moles of H and 1 mole of O for each mole of water. Topic 3: Thermal physics3.1 Thermal concepts