Atmosphere • What is the atmosphere? • Earth’s atmosphere (AT muhsfeer) is the covering of gases that surrounds Earth. Compared to the size of Earth, the atmosphere is a very thin covering. • What is the atmosphere commonly called? • Air.
Weather • is the condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place. • What would be an example of weather?
What is thepurpose of the Atmosphere? • Contains oxygen and other gases that living things need. • Traps energy from the sun, which keeps. Like a warm blanket that is a great insulator. (AIR) • Keeps Earth’s surface warm and Earth’s water in liquid form, another requirement of living things. • Why do you think that the moon has many cratersand the Earth does not? • Protects Earth from dangerous radiation from the sun and from meteoroids, which are chunks of rock from outer space.
Composition of the Atmosphere c. Use the graph to estimate how many times more nitrogen than oxygen makes up air. ________________________ d. What percentage of air is made of nitrogen and oxygen together? ________________________
Fuel Heat Air
Oxygen • Oxygen is the second-most-abundant gas in air. • Plants and animals take oxygen directly from air and use it to release energy from food in a usable form. • Oxygen also is needed for fire to burn. • Jar and candle demo
Carbon dioxide • is present in the air in only small amounts. • it is very important because plants need it to survive. • Animals, on the other hand, produce carbon dioxide. • The burning of fuels such as wood and coal also produces carbon dioxide.
Water vapor • is water in the form of a gas. • Is water vapor the same as steam?
Is there anything else? • The solids in the atmosphere are referred to as particles. Particles in the air include dust, smoke, and other chemicals.
Ozone layer • shields living things from much of the harmful UV radiation given off by the sun. • Is formed when lightning interacts with oxygen in the air. • Ozone is a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms.
Air pollution • is made up of gases, particles, or other substances in the air that are harmful to people or the environment. • Harmful substances in the air, water, or soil are known as pollutants. • Pollutants in air may cause such health problems as headaches, eye irritation, coughs, allergies, and lung diseases. • Most air pollution is the result of burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, gasoline, and diesel fuel. • Cars and other motor vehicles cause almost half the air pollution from human activities.
The four main layers of the atmosphere are classified according to changes in _______________. • The coldest temperatures in the atmosphere occur at an altitude of about_______________ . • The hottest temperatures in the atmosphere occur in the . • Temperatures increase in the _______ and_______ layers of the atmosphere. • As you move up through the mesosphere, the temperature ____________ . • As altitude increases in the troposphere the temperature __________________. • The layer of the atmosphere where weather occurs is the ___________________________. • The ____________________________is the layer of the atmosphere that contains ozone. • Most meteoroids burn up in the _________________. • Why does a weather Balloon keep increasing in volume as it rise up through the atmosphere?
Acid rain • The burning of coal that contains a lot of sulfur releases sulfur oxides into the air. • Acid rain forms when nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides combine with water in the air to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid. • Rain is naturally slightly acidic, but rain that contains more acid than normal is known as acid rain. • Acid rain may be strong enough to damage the surfaces of buildings and statues and harm trees. • Acid rain also may make the water of ponds and lakes too acidic for most water plants and animals to survive.