IMPACT OF FALL OF ROME • See handout notes
RISE OF THE CHURCH“AGE OF FAITH” • NOTES ON CHURCH • SPLIT OF EAST AND WEST 1054 (GREAT SCHISM) • COUNCIL OF NICEA-SETS BASIC TENANTS OF CHURCH INCLUDING BIBLE • THOMAS AQUINAS-TRUTH IS KNOWN THROUGH REASON AND FAITH
FEUDALISM AND MANORIALISM FEUDALISM-SYSTEM DESIGNED TO PROVIDE LABOR TO WORK FIELDS vassal (lesser knight) given land in return for military service serf lack of military forced people to turn to local lords for protection
MANORIALISM • ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF MIDDLE AGES • SMALLEST ECONOMIC SYSTEM, SOCIAL UNIT REVOLVING AROUND AN ESTATE • MANOR WAS SELF SUFFICIENT GROW OR PRODUCED EVERYTHING COMMUNITY NEEDED • MODELED AFTER ROMAN VILLAS • LACK OF TRADE AND THREATS FROM INVADERS PROMOTED THIS SELF SUFFICIENCY
CRUSADES • A series of Holy Wars • Primarily between Christians and Muslims • Purpose: Christians wanted to reclaim the holy land (Palestine/Jerusalem • OUTCOME • FAILURES LESSENED POWER OF POPE • CASUALTIES WEAKENED FEUDAL NOBILITY • SPICES AND GOODS TRADING LEAD TO EUROPEAN DESIRE TO TRADE IN ASIA
MAGNA CARTAThe Magna Carta was sealed by King John on June 15, 1215 • The Church - The Church freed from royal interference, especially in the election of bishops • Taxes - No taxes except feudal dues except by the consent of the Great Council, or Parliament • The right to due process which led to Trial by Jury • Weights and Measures - All weights and measures to be kept uniform throughout the realm
BLACK DEATH CAUSES: SPREAD BY FLEAS CARRIED BY RATS; TRADE(ROUTES) SPREAD DISEASE; INFECTED PERSONS SPREAD DISEASE TO OTHER PERSONS WHEN BACTERIA ENTERED INTO AN OPEN WOUND, ETC. EFFECTS: DEPOPULATION, COLLAPSE OF MANORIAL SYSTEM (ECONOMIC DOWNFALL), CATHOLIC CHURCH LOST PRESTIGE DUE TO ITS INABILITY TO STOP THE PLAGUE FROM SPREADING THROUGH PRAYER, ETC.
Hundred Years War: England vs. France • Origins of the Hundred Years War • When Edward III of England came to blows with David Bruce of Scotland in the fourteenth century, France supported Bruce, raising tensions. • These rose further as both Edward and Philip prepared for war, and Philip confiscated the Duchy of Aquitaine in May 1337 in order to try and reassert his control. • But what changed this conflict from the disputes over French land earlier was Edward III’s reaction: in 1340 he claimed the throne of France for himself. • He had a legitimate right claim – when Charles IV of France had died he was childless, and Edward was a potential heir through his mother’s side
OUTCOME OF WAR • Perhaps the most lasting impact of the war, especially in England, was the emergence of a much greater sense of patriotism and national identity. • This was in part due to publicity spread to gather tax for the fighting, and partly due to generations of people, both English and French, knowing no situation other than war in France. • The French crown benefited from triumphing, not just over England, but over other dissident French nobles, binding France closer together as a single body.