Transcription 1 Transcription 2 Translation 1 Translation 2 Mutations 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 300 300 300 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 500
Where does transcription take place? (name part of eukaryotic cell)What are copied from DNA during transcription?
What are the sites on Prokaryotes called that regulate gene expression during transcription? Why is gene regulation important in Eukaryotes?
Regulatory Sites Regulatory Sites Without these gene expression could not be controlled (turn on or off) in Prokaryotes Gene regulation in Eukaryotes allows for cell specialization Transcription #1 200
Binding site of the RNA Polymerase to begin making mRNA Transcription #1 300
An ______________is a group of genes that work together to regulate transcription in prokaryotes
By binding to the operator and blocking transcription by RNA Polymerase Transcription #1 500
T A C A C G C A G A T T (DNA)A U G U G C G U C U A A(mRNA)Each codon has 3 nucleotides eachTranscription #2 100
When an mRNA is being transcribed, what is edited out and what is kept in?
Introns Out! “junk” Transcription #2 300 Exons In!
What is this object leaving the nucleus after transcription?
Transcription #2 400 mRNA
What is the part of a Eukaryote’s DNA that signals where the RNA polymerase is to begin transcribing? Hint:
The TATA Box is the promoter region in eukaryotes for transcription. Transcription #2 500
Out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm to the ribosomeTranslation #1 100 Cytoplasm
Once the mRNA is in the cytoplasm, what RNA recognizes and wraps around the mRNA?
Where does the ribosome (rRNA) begin reading the mRNA? What amino acid does this code for?
Begins at the “Start” codon AUG (Remember: It’s the month we start school) AUG codes for Methionine (Met) Translation #1 300
What happens to the amino acids that are brought to the ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation? Amino Acid
Amino Acid The amino acid joins the growing polypeptide chain (protein). The tRNA then leaves to find another amino acid. Translation #1 400
When do tRNA’s stop bringing amino acids to the ribosome during translation?
When a STOP codon is reached on the mRNA strand.Translation #1 500 Stop codon Polypeptide chain released into cytoplasm and the ribosome falls off of the mRNA which is disposed of by the cell. Translation #1 500
Translate this mRNA A U G U G C G U C U A A
mRNA A U G U G C G U C U A AAmino Acids Met Cys Val Stop This is TRANSLATION!!! Translation #2 100
What does this wheel show? What process is taking place when you use this wheel?
Translation #2 200 Shows the GENETIC CODEThe process is TRANSLATION
What is the max possible number of codons for a single amino acid? How many codons specify for the amino acid Threonine? What are they?
Threonine ACG ACA ACCACU 6 is the maximum number or codons possible for an amino acid! Translation #2 300
What brings the amino acid to the ribosome to make proteins during translation?
tRNA brings 1 Amino Acid Translation #2 400
How many different codons are there?How many different amino acids are there?
Different codons Different amino acids Translation #2 500
Not a real picture What is a gene mutation?
Of the following mutations, which one of these is not a gene mutation?SubstitutionDeletion InsertionInversion Gene mutation in mice.
Substitution = Point Mutation (gene)Deletion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)Insertion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene) Inversion = Chromosomal Mutation I bet he can catch 3x more flies! Mutations for 200
What type of gene mutation is it when a nucleotide is inserted or deleted?
The amino acid sequence is no longer the same because the codons have shifted Frame Shift Gene Mutation Mutations for 300
Name all types of chromosomal mutations