Download
andrew jackson and the new democracy n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Andrew Jackson and the “New Democracy” PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Andrew Jackson and the “New Democracy”

Andrew Jackson and the “New Democracy”

164 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Andrew Jackson and the “New Democracy”

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Andrew Jackson and the “New Democracy” EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL WITH THANKS TO SUSAN POJER AND TONY MILLER

  2. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: TODAY: WHAT CHANGES IN THE EARLY 19TH C. LED TO DEMOCRATIZATION OF U.S.? HOW DEMOCRATIC WAS ANDREW JACKSON? LONG-RANGE: HOW DID U.S. EXCEPTIONALISM AND NATIONALISM EVOLVE, AND WHAT WERE ITS CONSEQUENCES? WHAT CAUSED THE CIVIL WAR?

  3. EMERGENCE OF Universal (WHITE) Manhood Suffrage IN THE U.S. • 1790’s – 1820’s - Universal Manhood suffrage – NO RELIGIOUS OR PROPERTY QUALIFICATONS FOR VOTING – WAS WRITTEN INTO eliminating all religious and lowering or abolishing property qualifications is written into the constitutions of newly admitted states and across the country: • Vermont (1791) INDIANA (1816) • Kentucky (1792) ILLINOIS (1818) • Tennessee (1796) MISSOURI (1821)

  4. THE TREND TOWARD UNIVERSAL WHITE MALE SUFFRAGE WHY? ALMOST ANY MAN COULD OWN LAND – JUST MOVE WEST (BUY IT CHEAP FROM U.S.!)

  5. ELECTION OF 1828: JACKSON V. JQ ADAMS GENERAL/ HERO, “MAN OF THE PEOPLE” - CHARISMATIC DIPLOMAT, HARVARD INTELLECTUAL – NO CHARISMA

  6. WHAT CONCLUSION CAN WE DRAW FROM THE DATA IN THESE CHARTS? THE NUMBER OF VOTERS FROM 1824 TO 1828 INCREASED MUCH MORE THAN POPULATION DID OVER ROUGHLY THE SAME PERIOD. THEREFORE, A MUCH GREATER PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION VOTED IN 1828.

  7. EXTENSION OF SUFFRAGE  • NATIONAL CAMPAIGN (AND “NEGATIVE CAMPAIGNING”) • AMONG OTHER THINGS, IT WAS RUMORED THAT JACKSON WAS A MULATTO AND ADAMS’ WIFE LOUISA WAS ILLEGIMATE • N-Rs CALLED JACKSON “JACKASS”  SYMBOL OF DEMOCRATIC PARTY

  8. “HICKORY TREE” IS ALLUSION TO WHAT? LIBERTY TREE

  9. DEFENDER OF BEAUTY AND BOOTY - ORLEANS

  10. FROM NEW YORK

  11. “NO FAVORED FEW, BOOTED AND SPURRED, READY TO RIDE US LEGITIMATELY BY THE GRACE OF GOD.” “NO BARGAIN, SALE OR MANAGEMENT – NO WAR, FAMINE, PESTILENCE OR SCOURGE” “NO SECTIONAL INTERESTS, JUSTICE AND EQUALITY TO ALL – AND HONOR AND GRATITUDE TO THE MAN WHO HAS FILLED THE MEASURE OF HIS COUNTRY’S GLORY”

  12. FROM OHIO SWEEPING THE AUGEAN STABLE WAS ONE OF THE LABORS OF HERCULES SWEEPING WHAT? MANURE

  13. FROM THE REPUBLICAN SIDE JACKSON AS INDIAN KILLER (as if most white people cared . . .)

  14. EDITORIAL ACCUSING JACKSON OF BEING A SLAVE TRADER WHAT STATES COULD THIS POSTER BE FROM? NEW ENGLAND, PROBABLY. THERE WERE SOME ABOLITIONISTS THERE, BUT MOST WHITE PEOPLE COULDN'T CARE LESS ABOUT SLAVERY

  15. RACHEL DONELSON ROBARDS JACKSON – A CASUALTY OF THE CAMPAIGN? JACKSON THOUGHT SO! • SHE WAS FIRST MARRIED TO LEWIS ROBARDS – DIVORCED, EVENTUALLY • JACKSON MARRIED HER IN 1791 – HER DIVORCE WAS NOT FINAL (APPARENTLY THEY THOUGHT IT WAS) • THEY REMARRIED IN 1794 (DIVORCE FINAL) • IN CAMPAIGN OF 1828, SHE WAS CALLED ADULTRESS, BIGAMIST – DIED OF HEART ATTACK SOON AFTER ELECTION

  16. THE MYTH OF THE COMMON MAN • JACKSON WAS THE FIRST PRESIDENT NOT BORN TO WEALTH • FIRST PRESIDENT FROM THE FRONTIER • BORN IN WAXHAWS (N.C.? S.C.?) • SETTLED NEAR NASHVILLE, TN. • LAST PRESIDENT TO FIGHT IN REVOLUTION (THOUGH ONLY 14 WHEN IT ENDED!) • MOTHER (NURSE) AND BOTH BROTHERS DIED IN WAR, JACKSON WAS POW  HATED BRITAIN

  17. BUT CLEARLY NOT A “COMMON” MAN • STARTED OUT AS SCHOOLTEACHER AND LAWYER  NATIONAL MILITARY HERO – NEW ORLEANS, FLORIDA AGAINST SEMINOLES • BY 1803, PLANTATION & SLAVEOWNER • BY 1820, HIS PLANTATION – “THE HERMITAGE” WAS > 600 ACRES AND HE OWNED OVER 40 SLAVES (LATER > 1,000 ACRES & NEARLY 200 SLAVES) • LAND SPECULATOR – E.G. “JACKSON PURCHASE” - TREATY OF TUSCALOOSA – CHICKSAWS CEDED W. TENN TO U.S., JACKSON WOUND UP OWNING MUCH OF IT

  18. THE HERMITAGE

  19. NONETHELESS, JACKSON CAMPAIGNED AS MAN OF THE PEOPLE, APPEALED TO FARMERS, AND FACTORY WORKERS (“FARMERS AND MECHANICS” OR “FARMERS AND LABORERS") • AND J.Q. ADAMS WAS DEPICTED AS CORRUPT, ELITIST, INTELLECTUAL (MARRIED TO A BASTARD!) • HIS SUPPORT FOR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, OBSERVATORIES MOCKED • ADAMS SAID OBSERVATORIES WOULD BE "LIGHTHOUSES OF THE SKY," DEMOCRATS SAID HE PROMISED TO BUILD LIGHTHOUSES IN THE SKY.

  20. Voter Turnout: 1824 - 1860

  21. ELECTION OF 1828 24 STATES – NOW ALL STATES EXCEPT DELAWARE AND SOUTH CAROLINA POPULARLY ELECTED PRESIDENTAL ELECTORS. NOW POPULAR VOTE MATTERS (WITH EACH STATE)

  22. ELECTION OF 1828 N.B. WE’RE SEEING THE BEGINNING OF A NORTH-SOUTH DIVISION

  23. John Quincy Adams (1767 - 1848): “Like Father , Like Son” ADAMS WENT ON TO A DISTINGUISHED CAREER IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 1831 - 1848

  24. “THE REIGN OF KING MOB” JACKSON INVITED THE PUBLIC TO HIS INAUGURAL BALL AT THE WHITE HOUSE – THEY TRASHED IT!

  25. A NEW POLITICAL WORLD • INCREASE IN WHITE MALE SUFFRAGE + ALMOST ALL STATES HAVE POPULAR ELECTIONS FOR ELECTORAL COLLEGE  • POPULAR POLITICAL PERSONALITIES • POPULAR CAMPAIGNING (PARADES, RALLIES, FLOATS, ETC. • SPOILS SYSTEM (PATRONAGE) • TWO-PARTY SYSTEM FIRMLY ENTRENCHED • (DEMOCRATS AND NATIONAL REPUBLICANS 1828; DEMOCRATS AND WHIGS (1832); DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS (1856) • CONGRESSIONAL CAUCUSES, NATIONAL/STATE PARTY COORDINATION

  26. Champion of the “Common Man”? “King”Andrew? OR

  27. PRESIDENT JACKSON – OFFICIAL PORTRAIT LOOKING ROYAL – BUT HE CALLED FOR POPULAR ELECTION OF PRESIDENTS, DEMOCRACY

  28. The New “Jackson Coalition” • 1) SOUTHERN PLANTER ELITE • 2) WESTERN FARMERS • 3) IMMIGRANT WORKERS IN EAST AND MID-WESTERN INDUSTRIAL STATES • 4) State politicians --THE SPOILS SYSTEM

  29. “OUR CIVIL SERVICE • SYSTEM AS IT WAS” – 1877 HARPERS CARTOON • IT'S CRITICIZING JACKSON’S SPOILS SYSTEM • HE ANNOUNCED “ROTATION OF OFFICES” – A REPUBLICAN PRINCIPLE – MEANT VICTORIOUS PARTY AWARDED JOBS, CONTRACTS TO SUPPORTERS • BUT DID HE ORIGINATE IT OR JUST FORMALIZE IT? • AND WAS IT INEVITABLE?

  30. EXAMPLE – “TAMMANY HALL” IN NYC • TAMMANY SOCIETY FOUNDED 1791 – FRATERNAL ORG  • BECAME UNOFFICIAL DEM-REP. HQ IN 1790s • CONTROL OF PATRONAGE (JOBS, $) AND VOTE– 1820s – 1930s • CONTROLLED NY POLITICS • COULD DELIVER NY VOTE TO A PRESIDENTIAL OR CONGRESSIONAL CANDIDATE “THE REPUBLICANS HAVE SEEN DARKER DAYS THAN THIS”

  31. JACKSON’S FIRST CABINET = DRAWN FROM NORTH FOR SECTIONAL BALANCE • EXAMPLE, MARTIN VAN BUREN (NY) – SECRETARY OF STATE • JACKSON RELIED MORE ON “KITCHEN CABINET” – WHICH INCLUDED NEWSPAPER EDITORS AMOS KENDALL AND FRANCIS BLAIR (PREDECESSORS OF PRESS SECRETARY) • CONSTANT RIVALRY BETWEEN VAN BUREN AND VICE PRESIDENT JOHN C. CALHOUN

  32. CALHOUN OF SOUTH CAROLINA – SUPPORTED CLAY’S AMERICAN PLAN, BUT NOT PROTECTIVE TARIFFS! VAN BUREN – “THE SLY FOX OF KINDERHOOK”, “THE LITTLE MAGICIAN”

  33. MAJOR ISSUES/ EVENTS OF JACKSON’S PRESIDENCY • NULLIFICATION CRISIS – STATE SOVEREIGNTY • INDIAN REMOVAL • PEGGY EATON AFFAIR – GENDER RELATIONS • JACKSON’S ECONOMIC POLICY – BANK WAR, PAYING OFF NATIONAL DEBT, SPECIE CIRCULAR

  34. 1832 THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS • U.S. NEARLY HAD CIVIL WAR THEN – OVER A TARIFF • THE FUNDAMENTAL ISSUE WAS STATE SOVEREIGNTY • SOUTH CAROLINA PURPORTED TO NULLIFY THE COMPROMISE TARIFF OF 1832 AND SECEDE IF U.S. TRIED TO ENFORCE TARIFF • CALHOUN PROPOSED THE 1828 “TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS” AS A PLOY, AND WHEN IT BACKFIRED WROTE “SOUTH CAROLINA EXPOSITION AND PROTEST”

  35. “THIS UNFORTUNATE YOUTH DIED OF HOUSE CONSUMPTION AND WAS BURIED AT WASHINGTON, D.C.,” ETC. (1830)

  36. JACKSON’S “OFF-THE-CUFF” RESPONSE: I will hang the first man I can lay hands on engaged in such treasonable conduct, upon the first tree I reach.”

  37. JACKSON’S OFFICIAL RESPONSE: • GOT FORCE BILL PASSED, 1833; THREATENED MILITARY FORCE AGAINST SOUTH CAROLINA • HIS PROCLAMATION ON NULLIFICATION INDICATED STATES HAD LITTLE OR NO SOVEREIGNTY • BE SURE TO READ ALL DOCUMENTS IN PRIMARY SOURCE SUPPLEMENT 2!

  38. NULLIFICATION CRISIS ENDED DUE TO HENRY CLAY’S COMPROMISE TARIFF OF 1833 (TARIFF GRADUALLY LOWERED OVER 10 YEARS) • SOUTH CAROLINA REPEALED ORDINANCE OF NULLIFICATION – BUT DID NOT BACK DOWN ON RIGHT TO NULLIFY AND SECEDE • THE CRISIS WASDEFERRED, NOT RESOLVED

  39. WEBSTER-HAYNE DEBATES, 1830 – BETWEEN DANIEL WEBSTER. L (MASS.) AND ROBERT HAYNE, L (S.C.) OVER SEVERAL WEEKS, THEY DEBATED ALL SECTIONAL ISSUES, INCLUDING SLAVERY AND NULLIFICATION. WEBSTER UTTERED HIS FAMOUS WORDS, “LIBERTY AND UNION, NOW AND FOREVER” (LIKE “HORSE AND CARRIAGE”?)

  40. INDIAN REMOVAL: YOU ARE ALL EXPERTS ON THIS AS WELL DUE TO READING CHAPTER 7 OF ZINN – BUT HERE ARE A FEW FACTS TO REMEMBER • IT WAS U.S. POLICY TO ALLOW TRIBES EAST OF MISSISSIPPI TO REMAIN AS LONG AS THEY BECAME “CIVILIZED” • THE “FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES” WHO REMAINED WERE THE CHEROKEES, CHICKASAW, CHOCTAWS, CREEKS, SEMINOLES – ADOPTED WHITE CULTURE INCLUDING CHRISTIANITY • BUT WHEN WHITE SETTLERS WANTED THEIR LAND THEY HAD TO GO

  41. IN 1828, INDIAN REMOVAL WAS A PLANK IN JACKSON’S PLATFORM • 1830 – CONGRESS PASSED INDIAN REMOVAL ACT -- U.S. TO NEGOTIATE TREATIES FOR REMOVAL OF INDIANS EAST OF MISSISSIPPI TO UNORGANIZED TERRITORY (OKLAHOMA AND KANSAS) • JACKSON’S PROMISE TO THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES – IF THEY WENT WEST THE LAND THERE WOULD BE THEIRS “AS LONG AS GRASS GROWS OR WATER RUNS” • BUT THE TREATIES WERE MOSTLY COERCED, AND INDIANS WHO DID NOT AGREE WERE FORCED TO LEAVE.  $$$$ FOR LAND SPECULATORS

  42. TWO SUPREME COURT CASES RELEVANT TO INDIAN REMOVAL (STILL UNDER CHIEF JUSTICE JOHN MARSHALL) • I. CHEROKEE NATION V. GEORGIA (1831) • 1. FACTS – GEORGIA, AFRAID CONGRESS WOULDN’T PASS AN INDIAN REMOVAL ACT, PASSED A LAW DEPRIVING INDIANS OF ALL RIGHTS UNDER STATE LAWS (PRELUDE TO STATE REMOVAL LAW). CHEROKEE NATION FILED ACTION IN SUPREME COURT TO STOP ENFORCEMENT OF THE LAW

  43. 2. ISSUE – DID SUPREME COURT HAVE JURISDICTION? IT IS A TRIAL COURT ONLY FOR CASES BETWEEN STATES • 3. HOLDING – NO, BECAUSE INDIAN TRIBES ARE SOVEREIGN NATIONS, NOT STATES • 4. LEGAL AND HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: ESTABLISHED THE RULE THAT TRIBES ARE SOVEREIGN NATIONS. IT DID THEM NO GOOD UNTIL 20TH CENTURY WHEN THEY BEGAN DOING THINGS LIKE OPENING CASINOS – DOES THEM LITTLE GOOD NOW (BIA STILL CONTROLS $$ OF MANY TRIBES)

  44. ii. WORCESTER V. GEORGIA (1832) • 1. FACTS NOT IMPORTANT – GA. PASSED LAW BANNING WHITE PEOPLE ON INDIAN LAND (TO PREVENT MISSIONARIES FROM HELPING INDIANS). WORCESTER WAS CONVICTED OF VIOLATING ACT • 2. ISSUE – DID GEORGIA LAW APPLY ON INDIAN LAND? • 3. HOLDING – NO, BECAUSE INDIANS ARE SOVEREIGN NATIONS

  45. 4. LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE: IF INDIANS ARE SOVEREIGN NATIONS, FEDERAL LAWS INCLUDING INDIAN REMOVAL ACT WOULDN’T APPLY TO THEM EITHER HISTORICAL: JACKSON ALLEGEDLY SAID, “JOHN MARSHALL HAS MADE HIS DECISION. NOW LET HIM ENFORCE IT.” WHETHER HE SAID THAT OR NOT, HE CLEARLY DEFIED THE COURT’S DECISION BY ENFORCING INDIAN REMOVAL ACT --JUDICIARY HAS NO POWER OF PURSE OR SWORD NOTE THAT JACKSON DEFENDED STATE RIGHTS IN THESE CASES

  46. Indian Removal

  47. CHEROKEE CHIEF JOHN ROSS – THE CHEROKEES WOULD NOT AGREE TO TREATY WERE REMOVED BY FORCE

  48. THE TRAIL OF TEARS – 1838 FORCED REMOVAL OF THE CHEROKEES TO OKLAHOMA – NEARLY 1/3 DIED EN ROUTE (TODAY FORCED MARCHES ARE CATEGORIZED AS GENOCIDE UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW)

  49. THE PEGGY EATON AFFAIR AKA “THE PETTICOAT AFFAIR” (1830- 31) – GENDER RELATIONS • RECALL – RACHEL JACKSON “PILLORIED” IN 1828 AS ADULTRESS, BIGAMIST – DIED AND JACKSON BLAMED NATIONAL REPUBLICANS • MARGARET O’NEILL TIMBERLAKE EATON – EDUCATED DAUGHTER OF OWNER OF D.C. BOARDING HOUSE – MARRIED D.C. GIRL – MARRIED TO NAVY PURSER JOHN TIMBERLAKE • THE TIMBERLAKES BECAME FRIENDS WITH TENN. SENATOR JOHN EATON. TIMBERLAKE DIED 1828, PEGGY AND EATON MARRIED A FEW MONTHS LATER