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Andrew Jackson. Section 5. Essential Question:. Champion of the “Common Man”?. “King” Andrew?. OR. Background. “Man of the People” Jackson was the first President from west of the Appalachians, where frontier life shaped people's characters Jacksonian Democracy
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Andrew Jackson Section 5
Essential Question: Champion of the “Common Man”? “King”Andrew? OR
Background • “Man of the People” • Jackson was the first President from west of the Appalachians, where frontier life shaped people's characters • Jacksonian Democracy • support came from thousands of first-time voters • states started to eliminate the property requirement • the votes cast for President tripled from 1824 to 1828, from roughly 356,000 to more than 1.1 million.
Spoils System • newly elected officials had given government jobs to friends and supporters, a practice known as patronage • Did not originate with Jackson but he celebrated it- this infuriates his opponents • Critics later labeled Jackson's form of patronage the spoils system. • War reference for politics- the “loot” was jobs for party supporters
Limited Government? • Jackson shared the beliefs of Americans who feared the power of the federal government. • Similar to which founding father? • used his veto power to restrict federal activity as much as possible • rejecting more acts of Congress than the six previous Presidents combined • Congress voted to provide money to build a road through Kentucky-liked the idea BUT vetoed it because he thought the state should do it • Vetoes earn him nickname- “King Jackson” • Ironically no president did more to increase the power of the president
Short Reading- Tariff Crisis!!! • What does nullification mean? • Why is South Carolina so upset about this tariff that they would be willing to go to war with the union? How does a tax on imports hurt them? • Underline the part of the passage where you think the answer is located • PUT INTO YOUR OWN WORDS • How would you describe South Carolina’s nationalism? (dynamite or magnet) • What do you think Andrew Jackson’s response will be?
Tariff Crisis • NULLIFY- states may reject federal law when they deem them to be unconstitutional • The tariff greatly benefited the industrial North but forced Southerners to pay higher prices for manufactured goods. • “Tariff of abomination” • Dynamite- prelude to the Civil War • STATES Rights • Strict interpretation of the Constitution • Divided sovereignty between the federal and state government • State sovereignty- “states created the federal government…the fed did NOT create the states” • States have the right to secede- withdraw from the Union if they wished to • SOUTH Carolina legislature votes to nullify the Tariff of 1828
Jackson’s Response- Is this the party of Jefferson? • South Carolina's defiance of federal law enraged the President. Jackson believed that the state was disregarding the will of the people. • At his urging, in 1833, Congress passed the Force Bill, which required South Carolina to collect the tariff. • Jackson threatened to send 50,000 federal troops to enforce the law. • The crisis eased when Senator Henry Clay engineered a compromise. • Congress reduced some of the import duties, and South Carolina canceled its nullification act. • the state nullified the Force Bill at the same time.
Indian Removal • Indian Removal Act- authorized the President to give Native Americans land in parts of the Louisiana Purchase in exchange for land taken from them in the East. IS THAT CONSTITUTIONAL??? • Worcester v. Georgia- “John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it!”- Andrew Jackson • Trail of tears- 116-day forced march westward for about 1,000 miles to Oklahoma Territory. Roughly 1 out of every 4 Cherokees died of cold or disease, as troops refused to let them pause to rest
The National Bank Debate PresidentJackson NicholasBiddle • Jackson hated the bank of the U.S. • held it responsible for the Panic of 1819 and the hard times that had followed. • the Bank of the United States could operate only until 1836 unless Congress issued it a new charter. • The president of the bank charter, Nicholas Biddle, supported by Senators Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, decided to RECHARTER the bank four years early, in 1832.
Positions on the Key Issues of 1832 DEMOCRATS WHIGS • Felt the widening gap between rich and poor was alarming. • Believed that bankers, merchants, and speculators were “non-producers” who used their govt. connections to line their own pockets. • Govt. should have a hands-off approach to the economy to allow the little guy a chance to prosper. • For Indian removal. • Oppose tariffs. • States’ rights. • Oppose federal support for internal improvements. • Opposed the National Bank. • Less concerned about the widening gap between rich and poor. • Opposed “liberal capitalism” because they believed it would lead to economic chaos. • Strong national govt. to coordinate the expanding economy was critical. • Opposes Indian removal. • Favored tariffs. • Supported a National Bank.
Jackson vetoed the bill to Recharterthe bank • “The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it.” • Jackson war with the bank makes him more popular and wins reelection in 1832 • 1836 • In poor health Jackson did not run for reelection in 1836 • Vice Pres Martin Van Buren ran and won • Pet banks • Even before killing the Bank of U.S., Jackson began withdrawing fed funds from the bank and putting them in tiny “pet” banks around the country. • They printed and lent money recklessly • Jackson was forced accept only gold and silver- “specie circular” • Panic of 1837 and 1839 leads to Depression
The 1836 Election Results Martin Van Buren “Old Kinderhook”
1840 • Whigs nominate war hero William Henry Harrison • Harrison defeated Van Buren • One month into presidency, Harrison dies of pneumonia • Vice pres John Tyler • Tyler was a southern democrat who ran with Harrison to take votes away from Van Buren • Experienced 4 years of Congressional gridlock without support from either party