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Andrew Jackson. Jackson was a strong fighter. He joined the Patriots in the Revolution when he was 13. He studied law and was eventually elected to Congress in his 20’s. He won national fame for his achievements during the war of 1812.
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Andrew Jackson • Jackson was a strong fighter. • He joined the Patriots in the Revolution when he was 13. • He studied law and was eventually elected to Congress in his 20’s. • He won national fame for his achievements during the war of 1812. • He defeated the Creek Indians and made them turn over their land in Georgia and Alabama.
Jackson’s Presidency • He was a complex person • He was adventurous and had a violent temper. • His opponents called him “King Andrew” because he wanted to expand the powers of the president • The Creeks disliked him so much they called him “Sharp Knife” • Why did they dislike him?
Who is the person in this picture? What are some of the symbols used in this cartoon? What do you think the artist was trying to say with this cartoon?
The Spoils System • After taking office, Jackson fired many government employees • He dismissed more than 200 employees. • Critics accused him of rewarding Democrats instead of choosing qualified men • Jackson felt that ordinary Americans could fill government jobs, instead of just the wealthy • Spoils System – practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
The “Kitchen Cabinet” • Jackson gave a number of his supporters Cabinet positions • Most of these men were NOT qualified so he rarely met with them • Instead, he relied on a group of unofficial advisors such as Democratic leaders and newspaper editors • Because he met with them in the White House kitchen they became known as the “Kitchen Cabinet”
The Bank War • President Jackson disliked the Bank of the United States • He thought it was too powerful • The bank had great power because it controlled loans in the United States • Example: If the bank directors thought state banks were making too many loans, they limited the amount of money those banks could lend • This angered farmers and merchants who borrowed money
Mr. Biddle’s Bank • The Bank was run by private bankers. • Nicholas Biddle was the bank president (Whig) and was strongly disliked by Jackson • The Whig plan to keep the bank: • The bank charter was up for renewal in 1836. Clay and the Whigs convinced Biddle to apply for renewal early. They knew Jackson would veto the application. • The Whigs thought that Americans wanted the bank, so if Jackson vetoed it, Americans would be angry.
Jackson’s Veto • Jackson vetoed the bank bill for two reasons. • He declared the bank unconstitutional • He believed the bank helped aristocrats at the expense of the common people
“Whig” Mistake • The Whigs miscalculated and the people voted in Jackson, and rejected the Bank of the U.S • Without a new charter, Jackson shut down the bank and deposited money in state banks that his friends controlled • The loss of federal money crippled the Bank of the U.S. and contributed to an economic crisis in 1836