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Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson. The Defender of “the Union” or “the Common Man”. Rant Quiz:. The Tariff of 1828 is sometime referred to as the Tariff of _________________________. He was Andrew Jackson’s Vice-President until wrote the “South Carolina Exposition” and openly fought with the President.

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Andrew Jackson

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  1. Andrew Jackson The Defender of “the Union” or “the Common Man”

  2. Rant Quiz: • The Tariff of 1828 is sometime referred to as the Tariff of _________________________. • He was Andrew Jackson’s Vice-President until wrote the “South Carolina Exposition” and openly fought with the President. • The theory of ___________________ would allow individual states to determine if a law was constitutional or not. • Robert Hayne of South Carolina and this Senator from Massachusetts engaged in a week-long debate over states’ rights and the tariff question. • A compromise tariff was proposed by this Kentucky Congressman in 1833 that helped to avoid a civil war with South Carolina.

  3. Jackson’s dilemma • An unintended consequence of increased democratic practice was a renewed call for power at the state and local level, not the central government. Explain why this happened? Why might this a problem for Jackson? • Jackson, as head of the Executive Branch, must keep the central government strong while trying to support the will and power of the “common man.”

  4. Jackson’s View of “Union” • Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party believed democracy could only be preserved when order was maintained. This order required a strong “Union” or connection between the states. • According to Jackson, maintaining the “Union” depended on a strict adherence to the rules and “supremacy” of the US Constitution. How might Jackson’s background explain this belief? • Any person or idea that threatened the “Union” was seen as dangerous. • Jackson felt that, as President, he needed to protect democracy by promoting a strong sense of nationalism.

  5. Sectionalism threatens Union • By 1828, the spirit of nationalism that existed among the states was beginning to erode. • Henry Clay’s American System and especially its protective tariff on imported goods contributed to the rise of sectionalism. Why? How did tariff affect the states differently? • Every four years the tariff rates rose. The Tariff of 1828 became so objectionable to Southern politicians that they referred to it as the Tariff of Abominations

  6. Nullification and John C. Calhoun • John C. Calhoun, Jackson’s Vice-President, was from the state of South Carolina. Although he supported the tariff in 1816, the concerns of the voters in his state helped to change his opinion by 1828. • In response to the Tariff of Abominations, Calhoun revived the theory of “nullification.” (IS THIS NEW?) • Calhoun secretly advocated for this theory in the “South Carolina Exposition.” (WHY?) • In Jan. 1830, the theory of nullification and states’ rights were debated in the Senate between Robert Hayne (SC) and Daniel Webster (MA). WEBSTER-HAYNE DEBATES • Calhoun’s obvious support of Hayne caused a major problem between Jackson and his Vice-President.

  7. The Nullification Crisis • In 1832, the Tariff of 1828 was set to expire. Congress approved of a new tariff with lower rates. • Despite the lower rate, South Carolina’s state legislature declared the tariff as “null, void and no law” within its borders. • Jackson was furious --- “I will hang the first “nullie” I see from the first tree I can find!” • Congress passes the Force Bill of 1833 which would give Jackson the power to use the Army and Navy to enforce the tariff. • Luckily, Henry Clay is able to avert a civil war by proposing the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually lower tariff rates for the next ten years.

  8. Jackson’s War of the Bank • Although Jackson willing to fight for Union over the idea of States’ Rights, he did not always support national institutions over the “common man.” • A very public example of this fact was Andrew Jackson’s opposition to the Second Bank of the United States (BUS). • Jackson believed the BUS was: • Undemocratic (not everyone could deposit money and get loans) • Unfair (State banks could not compete with it) • Unethical (Nicholas Biddle gave cheap loans to influential Congressmen

  9. Playing in traffic with the BUS • During the Election of 1832, Henry Clay was selected by the National-Republicans to run against Andrew Jackson. • In an effort to trap Jackson into openly attacking the BUS during the election, Clay and Daniel Webster decided to pass a bill re-chartering the BUS (four years before its original charter would expire). • Jackson vetoed it! • Jackson won the election of 1832 in a landslide: 219 to 49 • Jackson used the win as a “mandate” to “kill the bank”

  10. How to Kill a Bank • Although the re-chartering scheme failed, the BUS still operated under its original charter. • Jackson did not have the constitutional power to legally end the BUS, but it did not mean he could try ways to weaken it. • Jackson decided to remove all government deposits from the BUS and put them in “pet banks” (politically loyal state banks). • After firing two Secretaries of the Treasury who refused to de-fund the BUS, Jackson finally turned to his Attorney General, Roger B. Taney, to do the job. • Biddle viciously responded to this attack. By calling in loans and reducing credit, Biddle worsen a slight economic recession for which he, not Jackson, took the blame. • The BUS closed shortly after its chartered was refused in 1836.

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