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Andrew Jackson

The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. Andrew Jackson. The Growth of White Men's Democracy. Universal Manhood Suffrage. The 1830s & 1840s experienced: Massive voter turnout due to the growth of suffrage & increased organization of political parties

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Andrew Jackson

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  1. The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly Andrew Jackson

  2. The Growth of White Men's Democracy

  3. Universal Manhood Suffrage • The 1830s & 1840s experienced: • Massive voter turnout due to the growth of suffrage & increased organization of political parties • Direct methods of selecting presidential electors, county officials, state judges, & governors (replaced indirect methods by state legislatures)

  4. The Elections of 1824 & 1828

  5. The Election of 1824 Sec of Treasury under Monroe Sec of State under Monroe • The election of 1824 was a 4-way race among Dem-Republicans: • John Quincy Adams represented New England • William Crawford represented the South • Henry Clay & Andrew Jackson represented the West • Jackson won the popular vote but not a majority of electoral votes Not taken seriously at first; but “war hero” status made Jackson a nat’l candidate Speaker of the House; author of American System

  6. But, because no one candidate received 51% of the electoral votes, the House of Reps had to determine the presidential winner JQ Adams won NE Adams won when Henry Clay threw his support behind him Led to charges that Adams had "bought" the presidency (Corrupt Bargain!!) Crawford won VA but few other Southern states Clay’s influence was limited to a few western states Jackson did well in the South & the West

  7. J. Q. Adams' Administration One exception: the National Road • Adams had a difficult presidency: • JQ Adams wanted to continue the nationalist programs of the “Era of Good Feelings” • The depression of 1819 limited the nationalist agenda & few of Adams’ policies became law • A protective tariff was passed to help farmers & industry, but this angered the South

  8. Jackson Comes to Power But, these “Jacksonian Democrats” are not going to mirror the “Jeffersonian Republicans” • “Jacksonians” prepared for the election of 1828 by creating a well-organized, national campaign • Jackson (TN) formed a coalition with Adams’ VP Calhoun (SC), Van Buren (NY), & 2 newspaper editors (KY) to rival JQ Adams • Formed the basis of 1st modern politicalparty,callingthemselves the “Democrats” “Democrats” distinguished themselves as different from the “Nationalist Republicans” who has strayed from the Jeffersonian ideal

  9. Democrats presented Jackson as “Old Hickory,” uneducated, a hero, a dueler & a man of the people Democrats painted Adams as an out-of-touch aristocrat Jackson Comes to Power • The election of 1828 changed American politics: • Showed the effectiveness of political parties in elections • It was the 1st election with overt mudslinging & propaganda • Exciting appeals to average the man (public rallies & barbeques) • Jackson won the election as a “common man of the people” “Ms. Jackson is a bigamist” & “Ms. Adams is a bastard”

  10. Jackson’s wild & rowdy inauguration Who is Andrew Jackson?

  11. Jackson Comes to Power • Jackson was a popular candidate but it was not clear what type of president Jackson would be: • Jackson’s supporters wanted states’ rights & limited gov’t • During the campaign, Jackson never clarified his stand on major issues: banks, tariffs, etc. • Only stood for Indian removal

  12. Conclusions • In the 1820s & 1830s, America became more democratic: • Westward expansion facilitated the expansion of suffrage for common white men • Led to unprecedented voter participation by citizens • Allowed for a new breed of “common man” politicians to come to power

  13. JacksonianDemocracy

  14. Jacksonian Democracy • When Andrew Jackson was elected president, it represented a new era in American history: • He was the first president that represented the “common man” • His party (the Democrats) took advantage of the extension of suffrage to common white men • He greatly expanded the powers of the presidency Jackson advocated “negative activism” & increased presidential powers by using the veto more times than any previous president

  15. Spoils System • When Jackson was elected, he rewarded loyal supporters with gov’t jobs (the spoils system) • Massive turnover in the civil service had not yet occurred • Rotation in office began to be seen as a very democratic way to reduce gov’t corruption & incompetence Jackson was not the 1st to do this… he just extended it to more people!

  16. The Peggy Eaton Affair Only Sec of State Van Buren remained loyal to Jackson • Jackson’ s presidency began rough with the Petticoat Affair: • His entire cabinet resigned when Jackson supported the moral character of Sec of War John Eaton’s wife • Jackson formed a new cabinet but relied almost exclusively on his close friends & unofficial advisors (the “Kitchen Cabinet”)

  17. Maysville Road Project Kentucky was home of Henry Clay, who Jackson never forgave for the “Corrupt Bargain” • The “National” Republicans led by Clay & JQ Adams split with the old-style Democratic-Republicans • President Jackson dealt a blow to the American System: • HewasOKwithnationalprojects but did not like spending federal money for state projects • In 1830, Jackson vetoed funds for the Maysville Road because it was exclusively in Kentucky Jackson vetoed 7 other bills of public works projects, including roads and canals

  18. The Nullification Crisis

  19. The Nullification Crisis “Tariff of Abominations” Southerners hated tariffs for 2 main reasons: tariffs increase the costs of foreign industrial goods (which are usually cheaper than those made in America) so goods are more expensive AND countries reciprocate with high tariffs on American cotton • By 1820, the South was anxious about federal powers over states: • VP Calhoun became the defender of “states’ rights” • He wanted to protect slavery & hated industrial protective tariffs • After the Tariff of 1828 passed, the South affirmed nullification (the right of an individual state to ignore federal laws) Calhoun (SC) led the argument for nullification in Exposition & Protest in 1828 to protect Southern rights against Northern self-interest

  20. The Nullification Crisis In 1833, Henry Clay presented a compromise which severely lowered the tariff, SC withdrew nullification, & Jackson did not have to enforce the Force Act • 4 years later, Congress passed the Tariff of 1832; SouthCarolinainvokednullification & refused to collect tariff duties • Jackson viewed nullification as a treasonous threat to the Union • Congress passed the Force Bill to make S.C. collect tariff taxes • Jackson threatened to “hang Calhoun from the nearest tree” This 1832 tariff actually intended to lower the Tariff of Abominations, but Southerners viewed the tariff as an unconstitutional violation of states’ rights

  21. The Nullification Crisis • Significance of Nullification Crisis: • Nullification implied that states had the right to declare federal laws void & the right to secede from the Union • More than any other president, Jackson asserted that the central gov’t is supreme over the states & was willing to use force to preserve federal authority

  22. The tariff debates among the North, South, & West increased sectional rivalries in the 1830s In 1829, a NE Congressmen introduced a bill to slow western land sales (this bill was really an effort to keep NE’s power in Congress from slipping) Daniel Webster (MA) countered: “Liberty & Union, now & forever, one & inseparable” Robert Hayne (SC) proposed nullification & an alliance between South & West against NE This bill led to sectional tensions, culminating in the Webster-Hayne Debate in 1830 “Liberty first & Union afterwards”

  23. Webster-Hayne Debate • Daniel Webster presented one of the most significant arguments against states’ rights & nullification • The U.S. was more than just a compact of states…it was a creation of the people • The Constitution gave the national gov’t ultimate power & supremacy over the states • Nullification would lead to anarchy & civil war

  24. Indian Removal

  25. Indian Removal • Southerners were disappointed with JQ Adams’ slow movement in dealing with Indians • Jackson promised to act quickly but the Cherokee were a problem: • They were not “uncivilized” because they had a republican gov’t, an agrarian lifestyle, & a formal alphabet (Sequoyah) • They refused to move from GA

  26. Indian Removal Two more John Marshall decisions!! • When gold was discovered in GA, the GA gov’t abolished Cherokee tribal rule & defied the Constitution • Jackson supported the states & asked Congress for the Indian Removal Act of 1830 • But…the Supreme Court ruled in Cherokee Nation v GA (1831) & Worcester v GA (1832) that the states have no power over tribes GA defied the Supreme Court’s decisions & continued to take Cherokee lands Jackson supported GA’s defiance: “Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it”

  27. In 1838, the U.S. Army forced the Cherokeeswestonthe“Trail of Tears”

  28. The Bank War & the Second Party System

  29. The Bank War In 1828, the national gov’t coined only a limited supply of hard money & printed no paper money at all • The major political issue of Jackson’s reign was his killing of the Second Bank of the U.S.: • The BUS held ~$10 million in gov’t money & made loans to people & businesses • The BUS helped control America’s 329 private, state-chartered banks by forcing them to be smart when issuing loans All of America’s paper bank notes which financed land purchases, businesses, & economic growth came from these private, state-chartered banks The 2nd BUS had 30 branches & was biggest bank in America These state-chartered banks had tendency to issue more loans than they could support with their “hard currency” reserves

  30. The Bank Veto Congress was unable to override the veto Jackson’s veto did not immediately kill the BUS…its charter would not end for 4 years • Since entering office in 1828, Jackson disliked the BUS • Clay, Webster, & Biddle worried about the future of the BUS whose expiration was up in 1836 • Congress re-chartered the BUS in 1832 but Jackson vetoed it: • Claimed it unconstitutional, a violation of states’ rights, & “dangerous to people’s liberties” Jackson frequently attacked the bank as an agency through which speculators & monopolists cheated honest farmers

  31. The Election of 1832 • Jackson’s veto surprised the financial community but was very popular in the South & West • Jackson made the BUS a key issue in the election of 1832: • Jackson defeated Henry Clay • Jackson viewed his win as a mandate by the people to continuehiswaragainsttheBUS

  32. The Bank War • Jackson attacked the BUS by withdrawing all federal money & movedthefundsto23statebanks • Jackson’s opponents argued that he overstepped his authority: • Unpopular in Jackson’s cabinet • Some who supported his veto of the re-charter now questioned whether Jackson had gone too far & overstepped his powers Favorable state banks were called “pet” or “wildcat” banks Irony? This move effectively ended Henry Clay’s American System

  33. Killing the Bank …and Jackson’s successor, Martin Van Buren, will have to deal with • Jackson issued the Specie Circular in 1836 to move U.S. away from paper money by accepting only goldorsilver(specie) for land sales • Theeconomysank&Panic of 1837 led to a 6-year recession due to: • Price inflation & the inconsistent extension of credit by “pet” banks • Drop in worldwide cotton prices

  34. The Emergence of the Whigs • In 1834, an anti-Jackson coalition formed a new party, the Whigs: • Supported by ex-Federalists, “Clay Republicans,” commercial farmers in the West & South, industrialists in the North • Supported a strong national gov’t & economic regulation • The Whigs gained support during the Panic of 1837 & the recession Were strongly opposed to “King Andrew”

  35. Conclusions • Andrew Jackson ushered in a new form of politics by embracing the surge in democratic suffrage: • Forming the Democratic Party, active campaigning, the spoils system,&“common man” image • Jackson’s liberal use of the veto strengthened presidential power • Opposition to Jackson led to the permanent two-party system

  36. Jackson’s Legacy • The Good • The Common Man involvement in Government • Strong Executive Power • Massive Voter Turnout • Sparked Re-Creation of 2 Party System • The Bad • The Spoils System • Banking Instability • Excessive Check of the Supreme Court • Greater Sectionalism –Result of Split with Calhoun • The Ugly • Native American Policy • Trail of Tears

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