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Andrew Jackson. The Election of 1824. The West was represented by Henry Clay(KY) and Andrew Jackson(TN). New England was represented by John Quincy Adams The South was represented by William Crawford Adams won the “corrupt bargain.”. Corrupt Bargain.
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The Election of 1824 • The West was represented by Henry Clay(KY) and Andrew Jackson(TN). • New England was represented by John Quincy Adams • The South was represented by William Crawford • Adams won the “corrupt bargain.”
Corrupt Bargain • Jackson had the most electoral votes in the election of 1824. • He did not, however, have a majority. • The House chose the President, and Henry Clay threw his support to JQ Adams. • Adams later appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State.
The Democrat-Republican Party Splits • Followers of Adams and Clay took the name National Republicans. • Followers of Jackson called themselves Democrats. • Jackson went on to defeat Adams in the election of 1828.
Andrew JacksonEarly Life • Born in Waxhaw, South Carolina in 1767 • Joined the state militia at age 13 to fight in the Revolution • He refused to shine a British officer’s boots and was cut severely with a saber.
The brave boy of the Waxhaws Young Jackson refusing to clean major coffin’s boots
Andrew JacksonMilitary and Political Career • Lawyer in Nashville • Helped draft the Tennessee State Constitution • Representative in Congress and Senator for Tennessee • Judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court • Fought the Creeks (Horseshoe Bend) and the British (New Orleans) in the War of 1812 • Campaigned against the Seminole Indians in Florida and became military governor of the Florida territory
Nicknames • Called “Old Hickory” for his toughness and endurance in the War of 1812. • Election is called the “Revolution of 1828” because he had risen from poverty to the presidency. • His influence was so great that this period is called the Age of Jackson or the Jacksonian Era. • His slogan was “Let the people rule!” • His temper led his opponents to call him “King Andrew I”
The Spoils System • Jackson believed • Every citizen should have the right to hold public office • Officeholders terms should be limited to allow more people to have a chance at a government job. • Federal offices should be in the hands of friends and supporters of the winning candidate • “to the victors belong the spoils” began the practice of party loyalty, rather than competence becoming the basis for federal appointments
Jackson opposes nullification • The South named the Tariff of 1828 the tariff of abominations because it raised the price of imports • A new tariff, in 1832, lowered the previous one, the South passed the Ordinance of Nullification. • In it, SC • Declared the tariff null and void and not binding to SC, • Stopped federal officials from collecting taxes in SC • Threatened to secede from the Union if officials tried to collect taxes by force.
Jackson opposes nullification • Jackson passed the Force Bill to make SC comply. • Henry Clay created the Compromise Tariff of 1833. • It led to a gradual reduction in import duties over the next 10 years. • SC accepted the compromise and repealed its nullification ordinance.
Vs. Calhoun Jackson
Jackson Destroys the National Bank • The 2nd BUS aided the merchants, manufacturers, and bankers at the expense of the common people. • It was undemocratic because it concentrated its power in the hands of the few. • It exercised too much political and economic influence.
Bank, continued… • Jackson vetoed Congress’ bill to renew the bank’s charter. • He withdrew government funds from the National Bank and placed them in state or “pet” banks.
Jackson’s Indian Policy • 1830: Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act which forced the resettlement of thousands of Native Americans. • 1835: Most Native Americans lived in the west • 1836: Jackson created the Bureau of Indian Affairs to help resettled tribes.
Indian Policy, continued… • Georgia passed laws to remove the Cherokee Nation. • The Cherokee fought back in the Cherokee Nation v. Georgia(1831). The Supreme Court stated that Cherokees were not a foreign nation with the right to sue in a federal court. • The Cherokee went to the Supreme Court again in Worcester v. Georgia(1832). The court stated that Georgia could not pass/enforce laws in Cherokee Territory. • Jackson stated, “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.”
Results of Jacksonian Democracy • "After 8 years as president, I have only two regrets. That I have not shot Henry Clay or hanged John C. Calhoun." • In the early 1830s the National Republicans merged with other groups opposing Jackson and formed the Whig Party. They were led by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay and supported the national bank, a strong central government and high protective tariffs.