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Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson . The Age of the “Common Man”. What you need to know. Age of Jackson, 1828-1848 Democracy and the "common man" Expansion of suffrage Rotation in office Second party system Democratic Party Whig Party Internal improvements and states' rights: the Maysville Road veto

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Andrew Jackson

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  1. Andrew Jackson The Age of the “Common Man”

  2. What you need to know Age of Jackson, 1828-1848 • Democracy and the "common man" • Expansion of suffrage • Rotation in office • Second party system • Democratic Party • Whig Party • Internal improvements and states' rights: the Maysville Road veto • The Nullification Crisis • Tariff issue • The Union: Calhoun and Jackson • The Bank War: Jackson and Biddle • Martin Van Buren • Independent treasury system • Panic of 1837

  3. Why is the age of Jackson referred to as the “Age of the Common Man?” • Culture of an American Hero • Expansion of Suffrage • Popular campaigning • “The people are the Government, the sovereign power.” Jackson

  4. Culture of an American Hero • Jackson is perhaps 2nd only to Washington in popularity • Indian Fighter, “Old Hickory” • War Hero- New Orleans • Tough, self-made man • Epitome or personification of the West • Independent, strong willed, strong values of what is right and wrong

  5. Jackson Image • Society in America should be one which • “The planter, the farmer, the mechanic, and the laborer, all know that their success depends on their own industry and economy.” • Privileges of the Elites will not be allowed to stifle opportunity.

  6. Jackson Image • Anti- Elitism • Egalitarianism

  7. Rapid population growth and industry cause more people to want to vote New Western states offer voting as a way to encourage settlement Politicians supported, employers supported Western States adopt Universal Manhood Suffrage Property requirements removed in West, East follows practice White Males Vote 1824-27% 1828- 58% 1840- 80% Expansion of Suffrage

  8. Popular campaigning • Change from period of Deference-1780s-1810 • Open Air Rallies, Barbecues • Focus on Party Membership (Not issues) • Getting Votes is key • Most organized party wins (Van Buren the expert) • Torchlight Parades • Candidate Debates • Drinking • Banners/Slogans • Newspapers become important • Propaganda

  9. Party Politics • Mass Politics was key to political power • Need to organize the population • Loyalty to party was paramount Idea • Use favors and rewards = patronage for people who are helpful in getting votes • Party must be preserved

  10. Jackson Inauguration

  11. Election of 1824 • Democratic-Republicans- begins to divide • Adams Vs. Jackson • Vote Split • Goes into House of Reps • Clay Supports Adams • “Corrupt Bargain” acquisitions Clay is given office of Secretary of State • Jackson is a sore loser

  12. Jackson Campaign Dirtiest Campaign Ever Election 1828

  13. Adams Seen as elitist Seen as corrupt Seen as privileged Attacked for wasting $ Gambling devices Wins 44% of vote- New England, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland Jackson Wins great majority Power from the west, Calhoun VP Called a murderer Wife attacked in papers as a Bigamist Election of 1828

  14. Whigs- Adams-Clay (Similar to Federalists) Pro-Bank Pro-Tariff Pro-National Improvements- Roads, Railroads, Canals Democrats- Jackson Best organization Pro-States Rights Anti-Bank Anti-Tariff Anti-Federal funded transportation Martin Van Buren- key ally, and successor Strong political organizer Second Party System:The Democratic-Republican Party Divides

  15. Wanted expansion of Federal power Encourage Industrial and commercial development Strengthen the ties of the country with consolidated economic system Cautious of Westward Expansion Favored Banks, Corporations, Constituents WASPs Northeast Merchants Manufacturers Wealthy planters in the South Those that wanted stronger ties with the industrial North Ambitious Farmers and merchants of the West Migrants from Northeast to the west Aristocrats Whigs= traditional term for people in England who tried to weaken the king

  16. Expand economic and political opportunity (Common man?- not traditional elites) Gov Should be limited Gov should remove obstacles to opportunities Union is essential to opportunity Wanted to attack corrupt privelege South Some North and West Immigrants- NYC Irish- Germans- Catholic Locofocos- (Radical) Workingmen Small business Wanted to attack monopoly and Privilege Democrats

  17. Period of rapid economic expansion Canals/steamships, roads, railroads, Whigs-Clay support strong improvements paid for by Tariff Jackson is mixed in his policy Believed in strict interpretation of Constitution- Federal Gov has limited role- Example Maysville road- Clay wants fed $ to pay for road, Jackson says no. Vetoed bill Internal Improvements

  18. National Road Erie Canal-links Great Lakes to Eastern Seaboard Canals-3,326 miles of canals, cost $125 mill Goods-East to West Agri-produce West to EastCities Railroads-most in Northeast 1840- 3,328 miles cost $17000 per mile Internal Improvements

  19. Peggy was wife of Eaton a cabinet minister was excluded by other cabinet wives Jackson intercedes Calhoun’s wife ignores request Jackson is angry at cabinet He forms an informal group of advisors, excludes cabinet input except Van Buren Calhoun decides to resign- he doesn’t like Eaton Affair and Kitchen Cabinet

  20. Hayne was a Senator for S. Carolina With Calhoun Suggest the West should unite with the south against the EAST. Issues-both regions are victims of Eastern econmic tyranny Tariff- Webster – Senator from Massachusetts Responds to Hayne Keep the Union “Liberty and Union, now and forever one and inseparable.” Webster Hayne-Webster Debate

  21. Calhoun- “Mr. Southerner” Advocate of States’ Rights (major cause of Civil War) Breaks with Jackson, early, Eaton Affair Calhoun quits to be senator from South Carolina Jackson quote “Our Federal Union it must be preserved.” Calhoun,“The Union, next to our liberty most dear.” Highlights differences Nullification Crisis

  22. New Tariff of 1828 cause South to claim “Tariff of Abominations” States’ Rights advocate Calhoun secretly authors South Carolina Exposition and Protest Created doctrine that said, states could when they follow process, Nullify Federal laws Tariff ^ causes prices ^ Causes prices for imports to ^ Causes economic problems for the south Nullification Crisis

  23. Causes Jackson to get tough Sends the proclamation to people of South Carolina Said- Nullification does not exist No secession will be allowed “Disunion by armed force is Treason” Jackson asked Congress for Force Bill- authority to use force on nullifying states Clay comes to the rescue with compromise Webster supported South Carolina and Calhoun back down South Carolina convention passes Ordinance of Nullification

  24. Bank of the US needs to be renewed Jackson against bank (thought bank had too much power) Clay wants US bank Webster wanted bank Biddle- bank president wanted bank Jackson vetoes bank bill- Said monopoly on bank favored Eastern rich “To make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, at the expense of the humble members of society- the farmers, mechanics, and laborers.” “The federal government must provide equal protection under the law.” Bank War 1832-33

  25. Results of Bank War • A number of small banks emerge called “Pet Banks” • Speculation results- inflation land and prices go up • Jackson tries to remedy the problem with a idea to have one Gold or Silver pay for land (Specie) • Causes Panic of 1837, paper money loses value, and economy goes into depression

  26. Jackson believed Indians and Whites should not mix Cherokee’s had developed a significant civilization- constitution, farming, written language, Sequoia and John Ross are important figures. Gold was discovered on Cherokee land State gov wanted Cherokee land Jackson wanted to negotiate treaties for Indian Removal Many in the tribes didn’t want to move 1830 Removal Act was passed Offered money to relocate Indians Indians Resist in the Courts Indian Removal 1830

  27. Indian Removal • Law suits go to supreme court- State wins one 1831Cherokee Nation v Georgia (ruling is unclear regarding state jurisdiction) • Cherokee win one- Worcester v. Georgia • Marshall says Indians have right to tribal lands, Feds have jurisdiction over tribes and negotiations • Jackson and Fed negotiate treaties with some Indians and others disagree 17,000 forces Indians to leave • Cherokee Indians of Georgia are forcibly removed from Territory • 16,000 Indians are forced to leave Georgia and sent to Oklahoma

  28. Friend of Jackson Open interpretation of Constitution Favored expansion of opportunity States rights Example of Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge “The object of government was to promote general happiness” A state, therefore, had rights to amend or abrogate a contract if such action was necessary to advance the well being of the community.” Jackson and the Taney Court

  29. Hand picked successor of Jackson Gets caught up with the problem of banks and economic depression Panic of 1837 Loses to Whig Harrison Martin Van Buren democrat

  30. Log Cabin Campaign- 1840 • Popular Campaigning • Whigs Copy the Democrats in Campaign techniques • William Henry Harrison- Tippecanoe • (Fought Tecumseh and the Prophet) • Indian Fighter, Ohio, Popular

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