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  1. Water conservation Hang Bin Lim, SeoYeonChoi, Young Seo Yoon

  2. Introduction • Of all the water present on earth 97.5% of it is not fit to drink. • Only 2.5% of water is consumable, with one third frozen in the form of glaciers and polar ice. • The water left for human use is roughly 1% of the total water present.  Fig1. Water Conservation from benefits-of-recycling.com

  3. Issues • Southern Sri Lanca • Dry areas are not improving • Darfur • an isolated north-western province of Sudan with very low rainfall  • Kenya • Water shortage for its population • Zimbabwe • Water is needed to be conserved as waters are being wasted • Peru • Want to save water by agriculture Water harvesting Farming Improved Toilets Earth Dams Wadis

  4. Issues • Australia (Recent) • Nepal • Kenya • Shaanxi Province, China • Gansu Province, China Grey Water

  5. Issue – Shaanxi Province, China • Shanxi's major industries • thermal power generation, metallurgy and chemical industries • 3 million tons of wastewater • two-thirds of it discharged directly into local rivers without any treatment • 26 rivers in Shanxi • nearly 81 percent were rated Grade V or lower last year Fig4. China Black water from chinahush.com

  6. Intermittent slope Level Ditch • Slope • below 25° • Ditch • 13m apart along the contour • Width: 2m depth: 20cm • Earth • Excavated • Depth: 1m • Ridge • 0.7m wider than original slope • Surface bottom width: 1m • Top width: 0.5m • Planting Trees • Fast growing, economical • 5m distance between Fig5. Intermittent slope from fao.org

  7. Evaluation • Effectively controls soil and water loss An area with 750 m/ha of constructed ditches can hold over 900 m3 soil and water each time • Improve forest and grass growth The refilled surface soil brings the fertility to normal top soil level, stores water and conserves soil • Low labor and other costs On an average, each hectare of sloping land needs only less than 150 labor days and 75 Yuan (9 U.S. dollars) for tree seedling or grass seeds. • Productivity can reduce in the first 2-3 years • Landscapes can change depending on the weather characteristics This will lead to soil erosion and further environmental damage Fig6. Contoured Terraces from afe.easia.columbia.edu Back

  8. Issues • Australia (Recent) • Nepal • Kenya • Shaanxi Province, China • Gansu Province, China Grey Water

  9. Issue – Gansu Province, China • Technology used by people of Gansu Province • Gansu Province • located in the semi-arid and arid region with low rainfall and lack of water resources for irrigation Fig7. Gansu Province Farming from article.wn.com

  10. Paving Gravel on Sloping Lands • Paving a certain thickness of gravel on the surface soil of the sloping land • requirements of water for crop growth can be basically met even under semi-arid and arid climatic conditions without irrigation Fig8. Paving Gravel from fao.org

  11. Evaluation • Store water • Reduce evaporation • Preserve fertility • Reduce sanitation and soil loss • Gravel-covered farmland can be paved once and used for 15 to 40 years without tillage • Rainfall is generally concentrated in July, August and September agriculture production is not guaranteed without irrigation Fig9. Gravel on Farm from norsemanshipyard.com

  12. Conclusion

  13. Thank you 

  14. Grey Water • The implication of the more rapid decomposition of grey water pollutants is the quicker stabilization and therefore enhanced prevention of water pollution. • Decomposes very fast Back

  15. Problem in Kenya • Drought (to which 83% of Kenya's land area is vulnerable) also threaten potential productive agricultural lands http://www.desdemonadespair.net/2010/03/drought-agriculture-and-pollution-are.html

  16. Solution -Installed drip irrigation to conserve water http://www.simplyhydro.com - http://www.gharainwater.org/photos-video-audio/

  17. Benefit from drip irrigation • More than 80,000 households in the Kenya are set to benefit from a drip irrigation program that will increase food production. http://www.oneacrefund.org/blog/?m=201002 Back

  18. Issue - Nepal • Poor communities • Get a can of water from mountain streams • Not enough water to drink and water crops • Difficult paths: too steep Fig2. YouTube logo from youtube.com/t/press.com

  19. Multi Use Water System • Using the Power of Gravity • Water is carried from local spring • The source and intake box feeds the water into the pipe system • The water is collected in two tanks lined with soil-cement plaster • The water is carried to public tap stands to provide drinking water • Water is also fed to off-takes to provide water for irrigating fields How Landscape method Works

  20. Evaluation • Families no longer have to make difficult journeys to riversprovide a family with over 1,000 liters of water a day • People can grow crops for three seasons of the year instead of twoWith more water available for irrigation, many farmers now reap three harvests instead of two, allowing them to feed their families all year round • No more having to choose between drinking and farmingPeople can choose both now • Households also have enough water to meet their hygiene needsFamilies regained their health • Expensive Initial Establishing Cost The cost might be too high for impoverished people that they cannot even start building one • Destruction of Environment The paths of the mountain will be destroyed Fig3. Nepali mother and child from inf.org/gallery/nepali-people Back

  21. Farming • Training farmers in agricultural techniques – terracing and wadi (valley bottom) cultivation -- which extend the range of crops they can grow and which make more efficient use of scarce water resources. Around 1000 women and men farmers are being trained per year, mainly by local extensionists • Strengthening of the capacities of local village committees to manage and develop agricultural and water projects • Construction of dams for rainwater harvesting, and training in dam construction, as well as improvement in the techniques of construction of tumad (shallow wells) in the wadis and the construction of haffirs (channels) for water supply • Establishing several irrigated demonstration farms • Introduction of donkey carts for transporting water – for household use, and other goods, reducing the time and drudgery, especially for women, in collecting water Back

  22. Earth Dams <Affects> • Earth dams can save thousands of litres of rain water <How to build> • The dams take around three months of manual labour, often by the women who farm, to complete. Back

  23. Wadis <What is it> • Wadis are earth basins that form a water-saving bowl <Affect> • Rainwater flows from the sides to the centre of each planting bed <How does it work> • Each basin is surrounded by a ridge of earth about 15cm high. In flat fields the basins are two metres square – they are smaller on sloping land. In fields with deep soil, farmers use a hoe to build up walls around each plot. Back

  24. Rain Water harvesting • Adopted in many areas • Rain water catchment tanks - On roofs - Grounds - Buildings - Dams • To have clean water, people from poor villages build certain water storage buildings •  Lanka Rainwater Harvesting Forum  an activity that played a key role in establishing, and which promoted rainwater harvesting activities throughout the country. Back

  25. Improved Toilets <Bio Latrines> • a dry toilet technology which reduces the demand for water • includes a natural exhausting process so that the digester system never fills up to overflow • The waste collected in the digester is processed using anaerobic digestion to make organic manure (suitable for use as fertiliser) As the waste biodegrades, the digester captures methane gas which is used for lighting and cooking

  26. Improved Toilets <Twin pit Latrine> • Easy to maintain the toilet • waste is sealed to remove pathogens before being composted and used as manure • When one pit is full, it’s closed and the other is used • After a year, the first pit can be safely emptied and the contents used as manure. Back

  27. Works Cited List • "Farming Techniques for Water Conservation Farming Techniques for Water Conservation Farming Techniques for Water." Practical Action. 23 Apr. 2012. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. • "Improved Toilets | Water and Sanitation| Practical Action." Welcome to Practical Action. 23 Apr. 2012. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://practicalaction.org/improved-toilets-3>. • "Rainwater Harvesting | Practical Action." Welcome to Practical Action. 23 Apr. 2012. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://practicalaction.org/water-and-sanitation/rainwater_harvesting>. • " GREYWATER." Greywater Irrigation. 23 Apr. 2012. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.greywater.com/>. • http://www.wvafrica.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=607:kenya-raising-hope-through-dry-land-agriculture-&catid=57:latest-news&Itemid=86

  28. Works Cited List  Frank, and Dixon. "Nepali People." International Nepal Fellowship. 2012. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.inf.org/gallery/nepali-people>. Key. "Amazing Pictures, Pollution in China | ChinaHush." ChinaHush. 21 Oct. 2009. eb. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.chinahush.com/2009/10/21/amazing-pictures-pollution-in-china/>.  "Multiple Use Water Systems | Practical Action." Welcome to Practical Action. Reg Charity. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://practicalaction.org/water-and-sanitation/multi-user-water-systems>.  "Norsemen Shipyard History-built in 2000 on China Sea near Xiamen China for Building of Marlow Yachts." Norsemen Marlow Shipyard, Ltd. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.norsemenshipyard.com/history.htm>. Wu Deyi, Liu Xiaoying, San Sobei, Bi Zifieng, Leo Rongen, and WenYuhua. "Soil and Water Conservation:." FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, for a World without Hunger. Ed. Prem N. Sharma. Forestry Department. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5670E/x5670e06.htm>.