Leadership and Management Dr. kapilahettiarachchi Mbbs. Md, mba (UK) Lead Consultant Anaesthetist Sirimavo Bandaranaike specialised children hospital peradeniya
Are leaders born or made ? Mahatma Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi led India against the rule of the British. He fought silently and practiced ahinsa or non-violence Nelson Mandela was the leader and the face of the Anti- Apartheid movement Richard Branson has one of the world's most widely recognized personal brands
Great man theory • The leaders are born and not made and posses certain traits which were inherited • Great leaders can arise when there is a great need. Assumptions
Trait Theory of Leadership • Based on the characteristics of many leaders - both successful and unsuccessful - and is used to predict leadership effectiveness.
Trait Theory of Leadership Scholars taking the trait approach attempted to identify • Physiological (appearance, height, and weight), • Demographic (age, education and socioeconomic background) • Personality, (self-confidence, and aggressiveness), • Intellective (intelligence, decisiveness, judgment, and knowledge), • Task-related (achievement drive, initiative, and persistence), and • Social characteristics (sociability and cooperativeness) with leader emergence and leader effectiveness.
Leadership requires two types of skills LEADERSHIP Developing a direction and vision. Making strategic decisions. INTELLECTUAL SKILLS Influencing others. Interacting with peers, employees, clients, superiors PEOPLE SKILLS
Five Bases of Power (French & Raven,1986) Source: Adapted from the “Bases of Social Power” by J. R French Jr. and B. Raven, 1962, in D. Cartwright (Ed.), Group Dynamics: Research and Theory (pp.259-269), New York: Harper & Row
Leadership Styles Broad classifications of leadership style include: • Authoritarian (or autocratic) style • Democratic style • Laissez-faire (genuine) style
Autocratic The autocratic leadership style allows managers to make decisions alone without the input of others. Managers possess total authority and impose their will on employees. No one challenges the decisions of autocratic leaders. Countries such as Cuba and North Korea operate under the autocratic leadership style. This leadership style benefits employees who require close supervision. Creative employees who thrive in group functions detest this leadership style.
Democratic Manager allows the employees to take part in decision-making: therefore everything is agreed by the majority. (empowerment) – this style can be particularly useful when complex decisions need to be made that require a range of specialist skills; – job satisfaction and quality of work will improve. – the decision-making process is severely slowed down, and the need of a consensus may avoid taking the 'best' decision for the business.
Laissez Faire The absence of leadership A hands-off, let-things-ride approach Refers to a leader who: • abdicates responsibility • delays decisions • gives no feedback, and • makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs
Transformational Leadership “is a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into moral agents” (Burns, 1978)
Transformational Leadership Concept Leadership behaviours are on a continuum Laissez Faire Transactional Transformational Bass & Avolio, 1990
Emotional intelligence • The capacity to be aware of, control, and express one's emotions, and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically. • ”Emotional intelligence is the key to both personal and professional success" Daniel Goleman 2011
Emotional intelligence is learnable • Emotional intelligence cab be developed over time • It improves with age
How EQ develops Nature • 1. Greater social competence • 2. High quality performance EQ • 3. Better health Nurture
Self - perception Self – Regard is respecting oneself while understanding and accepting one’s strengths and weakness. Self – Regard is often associated with feelings of inner strength and self confidence. Self–Actualisationis the willingness to persistently try to improve oneself and engage in the pursuit of personally relevant and meaningful objectives that lead to a rich and enjoyable life. Emotional self awareness includes recognising and understanding one’s own emotions. This includes the ability to differentiate between subtleties in one’s own emotions while understanding the cause of these emotions and the impact they have on one’s thoughts and actions and those of others.
Self -expression Emotional Expression is openly expressing one’s feelings verbally and non verbally. Assertiveness involves communicating feelings, beliefs and thoughts openly and defending personal rights and values in a socially acceptable, non offensive and non destructive manner. Independence is the ability to be self directed and free from emotional dependency on others. Decision making, planning and daily tasks are completed autonomously.
Stress management Flexibility is adapting emotions, thoughts and behaviours to unfamiliar, unpredictable and dynamic circumstances or ideas. Stress Tolerance – involves coping with stressful or difficult situations and believing that one can manage or influence situations in a positive manner. Optimism is an indicator of one’s positive attitude and outlook on life. It involves remaining hopeful and resilient, despite occasional setbacks.
Decision making Problem Solving is the ability to find solutions to problems in situations where emotions are involved. Problem solving includes the ability to understand how emotions impact decision making. Reality Testing is the capacity to remain objective by seeing things as they really are. This capacity involves recognising when emotions or personal bias can cause one to be less objective. Impulse control is the ability to resist or delay an impulse, drive or temptation to act and involves avoiding rash behaviours and decision making.
Interpersonal Interpersonal Relationships – refers to the skill of developing and maintaining mutually satisfying relationships that are characterised by trust and compassion. Empathyis recognising, understanding and appreciating how other people feel. Empathy involves being able to articulate your understanding of another perspective and behaving in a way that respect others’ feelings. Social responsibility is willingly contributing to society, to ones’ social groups and generally to the welfare of others. Social Responsibility involves acting responsibly, having social consciousness and showing concern for the greater community.