100 likes | 103 Vues
Area of Study 4. Indian Raga!. LEARNING OBJECTIVES. By the end of the lesson you will be able to: Understand the structure of an Indian Raga Explain the key features in the music Understand the rough analysis of the different Raga’s. INDIAN RAGA.
E N D
Area of Study 4 Indian Raga!
LEARNING OBJECTIVES • By the end of the lesson you will be able to: • Understand the structure of an Indian Raga • Explain the key features in the music • Understand the rough analysis of the different Raga’s
INDIAN RAGA What you need to know about Indian Raga : • RAGA – Indian scale/melody • It is learnt through Oral Tradition • A raga is in 4 sections – Alap, Jhor, Jhalla, Gat/ Bandish • There are 3 elements –Drone(played by Tambura),Raga – (melody played by Sitar) and theTala – (rhythm played by Tabla)
THE THREE ELEMENTS • The Melody: • This is the set melody on which the music is improvised • It is a cross between pitch and a scale – however the pitches often differ in each direction • The notes in a Rag vary – some have 5 notes like a pentatonic scale whilst others have 7 or 8 notes • There are over 200 different Rags! • The Drone: • The drone is a replacement for a real sense of harmony like Western Music • The notes are usually the Tonic and Dominant (I – V) of a chosen Rag • It keeps a sense of tuning/ intonation as a reference point for the melodic parts • The sound adds texture to the whole piece • Rhythm: • The Tabla drums gives repeated rhythmic cycles called Tala • The rhythm patterns (bols) are independent of the beat and can be inventive – creating syncopation • They must however start and end precisely on the first beat of the cycle (called Sam)
Analysis of the Rag Desh • Rag Desh: The Rainy Season Raga, played at night • Gives the feeling of romance and devotion • Rag Desh by Anoushka Shankar • It is made up of an ALAP and two different GATS • You can hear the different techniques Shankar uses in the Alap: • Strums • Plucks • Bends notes • The first Gat uses 10 beats tala - Jhaptal, at a medium tempo: madhyalaya • The second Gat uses 16 beat tintal tala, faster tempo: drut
Rag Desh by Chiranji Lal Tanwar • Use of voice to sing the Raga • There is an ALAP and BANDISH section • Alap: • The sitar improvises using note of the raga over a tamura drone, joined by a sarangi • The singer uses a lot of vibrato • The tal used is the 8 beat Keherwa Tal • Bandish: • Fixed composition • Vocals are more elaborate • Tempo increases, music becomes fast and exciting
Rag Desh by Steve Gorn & Benjy Wertheimer • More traditional raga structure - There is an ALAP and two GATS • Alap: • Improvise using the notes of the Rag Desh • Drone from Tambura Drone • The section is slow and flowing - no specific pulse • Gat 1: • Steady rhythm • Faster than the Alap • Gat 2: • A lot faster • The Tabla plays fast complicated rhythms • Melody more structured
Exam type questions… • All three pieces start with an alap section. Name three characteristics of this opening section of a raga • What is the ‘fixed composition’ and where is it to be found in the raga? • Name two other sections of a full raga performance • Describe two features of the rhythm in all three versions