World History II SOL Review Day 2
WHII 6 a Scientific Revolution • What effects did the Scientific revolution have in the study and practice of Science? • Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature • Formulation of scientific method • Expansion of scientific knowledge
Age of Absolutism • What are the Characteristic of Absolute monarchies? • Centralization of power • Concept of rule by divine right • What is divine right? • The belief that their power comes from God
WHII 6 b Examples of Absolute Monarchies • France: Louis XIV • Built the Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power. • Known as the Sun King • Prussia: Frederick the Great • Builds a large army • Russia: Peter the Great of Russia • Westernization of Russia • Built St Petersburg ( warm water port)
English Civil War and Glorious Revolution • Discussion Question: • How did the English civil War and the Glorious Revolution promote the developments of the rights of the English man?
Enlightenment • Applied reason to the Human world, as well as to the rest of the natural world • Stimulated religious tolerance • Fueled democratic revolutions around the world • Influence of the Enlightenment • Fueled the revolution in the Americas and France • Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas • The Constitution and the Bill of rights also included ideas from the Enlightenment
French Revolution • What were the causes of the French Revolution? • Enlightenment Ideas • Influence of the American Revolution • Social Injustice • Dislike of Monarchy • Enlightenment Ideas • Freedom of religion and speech • Government of the people Social in Justice Treatment of the Third Estate (peasants) Dislike of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette
French Revolution What is this? Guillotine • Events • Storming of the Bastille • Reign of Terror • Reign of Terror • Reign of Terror led by Robespierre • Louis and Marie Antoinette executed • Thousands killed who were possible against the revolution • Reign of Terror Ends when Robespierre is beheaded
French Revolution • Outcomes of the French Revolution • End of absolute monarchy of Louis XVI • Rise Napoleon • Napoleon builds a French Empire in Europe. • Influences Latin American Revolutions Who Am I? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8gC00avITj0&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
Age of Reason • Painting depicted classical subjects, public events, natural people (portraits) • New forms of Literature evolved, such as the Novel
New Technologies • All-weather roads improved year-round transportation • New designs in farm tools increased productivity (agricultural revolution) • Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of transportation See how the road is elevated and slopped to water can easily run off. Less likely to get puddles!
Question 1 • John Locke is closely associated with which belief? • Absolute monarchs are the best form of government • The church should always be obeyed regardless of its message • The government should be a contract made by the people • The people never have a right to revolt against the government
Question 2 • Johannes Kepler is known as a pioneer of the Scientific Revolution for his • Development of the heliocentric theory • Formation of the law of gravity • Use of the telescope to support the heliocentric theory • Discovery of planetary motion
Question 3 • Peter the Great was a monarch of • France • England • Prussia • Russia
Question 4 • The principle that government derives power from the consent of the governed is represented through • Communism • Democracy • Socialism • Oligarchy
Question 5 • The development of the rights of Englishman included • An increase in royal power • The end of political factions • The rise of power of Charles I • The establishment of common law
Question 6 • The Enlightenment thinker who wrote The Social Contract was: • Voltaire • John Locke • Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Montesquieu
Question 7 • Which was NOT an application of Enlightenment thinking? • Reason was applied to the human world, not just the natural world • Religious tolerance was encouraged • The Scientific Revolution was begun • Democratic revolutions around the world were fueled
Question 8 • The first reigning monarch to face a public trial and execution was • James I • Charles II • Henry VIII • Charles I
Question 9 • The Separations of powers found in the United States Constitution comes from the writing of which Enlightenment thinker? • Hobbes • Locke • Montesquieu • Voltaire
Question 10 • The reign of which monarch gave England its first constitutional monarchy? • Charles II • James II • Mary II • Elizabeth I
Latin American and Revolutions Colonial governments mirrored the home governments Catholicism had a strong influence on the developments of colonies A major element of the economies was mining of precious metals
Latin America Viceroys/ colonial officers Creoles ** Majority of Revolutions will be lead by this group** Mestizos
Latin American Revolutions • Haiti • Lead by former slave Toussaint L ‘Ouverture • Slave rebellion • Wins independence after beating three armies: Spain, France and Britain
Latin American Revolution • Mexico: • Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican independence movement • Believed in enlightenment ideas • Creoles become armed and raise army to put down Hidalgo and rally around Jose Maria Morelos who leads independence movement
Latin American Revolutions • Following Countries gained independence: • Mexico • Haiti • Colombia • Venezuela • Brazil*** what special about brazil independence?
Latin American Revolutions • Simon Bolivar • Native Venezuelan Creole who led revolutionary efforts • Liberated northern areas of Latin America • Venezuela • Colombia • Ecuador I tried to combined them all together in one state called Grand Colombia!
Monroe Doctrine • Define: US policy of opposition to European interference in Latin America, announced by President James Monroe in 1823 • Latin American nations were acknowledged to be independent Write it in your own words!
Question 1 • Who led a successful revolution in Haiti to free Haitians from French rule? • Toussaint L’Ouverture • Simón Bolivar • Napoleon Bonaparte • Jose de San Martin
Question 2 • Who led a successful revolution in the northern area of South America, eventually having a country named after him? • Toussaint L’Ouverture • Simón Bolivar • Napoleon Bonaparte • Father Miguel Hidalgo
Question 3 • Viceroys were • religious officials. • priests. • explorers. • colonial officials.
Question 4 • Which nation claimed the region extending from Mexico through South America? • France • Spain • Portugal • The Netherlands
Question 5 • The European colonies in the Americas • established new and independent cultures and social patterns. • followed the cultural and social patterns of the indigenous peoples. • imitated the cultures and social patterns of their parent countries. • established a unified cultural and social pattern for all to follow.
Question 6 • The United States issued the Monroe Doctrine because • there was conflict over who would control Latin America. • American merchants had found rich markets in Africa. • the United States opposed the Spanish king. • the United States wanted colonies in South America.
Question 7 • The country located at number 1 on the map above is • Mexico. • Columbia. • Venezuela. • Brazil. 1
Question 8 • 8. Revolutions in Latin America were influenced by • the Renaissance. • the Crusades. • the Civil War in Spain. • the French Revolution.
Question 9 • Who started the Mexican independence movement? • Father Miguel Hidalgo • Simón Bolivar • Jose de San Martin • Toussaint L’Ouverture
Political and Philosophical Developments in Europe I’m grumpy The British beat me at the battle of Waterloo • Legacy of Napoleon • Creating an Empire • Unsuccessful attempt to unify • Growth of nationalism in occupied countries • Napoleonic code: • A uniform set of laws. Limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights
Congress of Vienna Make sure that no single nation would ever dominate Europe again There would be NO more Napoleons! • “Balance of Power” • Restoration of Monarchies • New Political Map • New Political philosophies Bring Back Monarchies that had excited before Napoleon’s conquest Legitimate monarchies would stabilize political relations among nations Return the territories that Napoleon had captured and make France the size it was before the empire Liberalism- Believed in NEW ideas and Conservatism- believed in OLD ideas
Nationalism • The belief that people should be loyal to their nation- to the people with whom they share a culture and history –rather than to a king or queen
Unification of Italy and Germany I got help from Giuseppe Garibaldi who unified southern Italy Italy- Count Cavour Germany- Otto von Bismarck Believed in Realpolitik: “ The politics of reality”- the practice of tough power politics without room for idealism
Question 1 • The Congress of Vienna • supported Napoleon’s attempt to unify Europe. • restored European monarchies. • established democracies in Europe. • reaffirmed the existing European political boundaries.
Question 2 • The unification of southern Italy was accomplished by • Count Cavour. • Bismarck. • Giuseppe Garibaldi. • Napoleon.