DOMAIN 5 Melissa Singh March 29, 2010
DOMAIN 5 • Student Diversity in Development and Learning • School psychologists have knowledge of individual differences, abilities, and disabilities and of the potential influence of biological, social, cultural, ethnic, experiential, socioeconomic, gender-related, and linguistic factors in development and learning. School psychologists demonstrate the sensitivity and skills needed to work with individuals of diverse characteristics and to implement strategies selected and/or adapted based on individual characteristics, strengths, and needs. (NASP, 2000b)
Impact of Multicultural Training • Research focusing on the outcome of multicultural training for students in the school psychology program. • 63 students participated (undergraduates). • MAKKS (Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Survey) developed by D’Andrea et. al,1991. • Awareness ex. How has your cultural background influenced the way you think and act? • Knowledge ex. Racial and ethnic individuals are under-represented in clinical and counseling psychology. • Skills How would you rate your ability to conduct a successful counseling interview with a person from a cultural background significantly different from yours? (Keim, J. et al., 2001)
Impact of Multicultural Training Cont’d • Participants completed the MAKSS-T in 3 phases before the course, mid-way through the course, and after the course was completed. • Some topics included in the course: • Recognizing and addressing dehumanizing biases, prejudices, and discrimination. • Respecting human diversity and personal rights. • Developing multicultural, gender fair, disability sensitive, inclusive approaches. • Results: • Analysis of the pre to post test indicate significant increases in multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills. • To gain multicultural skill development; multicultural awareness and knowledge needs to occur first. (Keim, J. et al., 2001)
Outcomes in Multicultural Training • Qualitative study examining counselor training outcomes in a multicultural counseling course. • Measurement: • Multicultural Competency Checklist (MCC) • Student self-reports • 4 month follow-up interviews with students. • 17 graduates students recruited • Results • A.) Students felt the need for more in depth training. • B.) Students also felt multicultural courses to be important, but, additional multicultural experiences and challenges are needed to become multiculturally competent.
Both studies indicated (more or less the same results). • Students illustrate an increase in competency once completing a course on multi-culturism, however hands-on experience appear to be the only actual way to feel competent working with a diverse population. • At the NASP conference, Malone et al. (2010), presented these article in hopes of educating school psychologists in areas of multi-culturism. • Specifically, there does not appear to be required courses for graduate school psychologists to be trained in this area (as opposed to counseling psychologists).
Development of Multicultural Competence in School Psychologists • Multicultural Competence- a psychologists ability to work effectively with diverse populations. • We use this multicultural knowledge to engage in behavior and skills that reflect awareness and sensitivity to multicultural issues. • It is the characteristics and skills of the psychologist which make that possible. • A school psychologist who is multiculturally competent may be better equipped to address issues within school systems that impact minority children. (Malone, Connell, & Fiorello, 2010)
Multicultural Training in School Psychology • Programs choose how they evaluate students’ multicultural competence. • Some examples: • Assignments (e.g. portfolios, report writing, papers) • Integrating multicultural themes in theses and dissertations. • Assessing competency during field placement. • Students proficiency in learning another language. (Malone, Connell, & Fiorello, 2010)
Activities/Observations • I.) Grissom vs. Cowan Elementary School • II.) Interventions at Grissom • III.) Various Views on Culture.
Practice Guideline 5 • School psychologists have the sensitivity, knowledge, and skills to work with individuals and groups with a diverse range of strengths and needs from a variety of racial, cultural, ethnic, experiential, and linguistic backgrounds. • More Specifically • School psychologists recognize (in themselves and others and in the techniques and instruments that they use for assessment and intervention) the subtle racial, class, gender, and cultural biases they may bring to their work and the way these biases influence decision-making, instruction, behavior, and long-term outcomes for students. School psychologists work to reduce and eliminate these biases where they occur. (Appendix D) (Fagan & Wise, 2007)
TIMES • America is getting a new minority. • According to the Census Bureau, by 2050, whites will be the minority group in the U.S. • How the current majority reacts to its developing change to a minority status is the most crucial socio-demographic issue facing the country in the decade to come. (Rodriguez, 2010)
Conclusion • As school psychologists, we need to integrate and incorporate several variables when assessing a child. This may not necessarily be available information. Sometimes it may be best to just ask the child/parent if we are not sure of their cultural background. More specifically, interviewing both a child and their parent can offer insight to their own individual beliefs and values. Conversely, even the most experienced school psychologist can not determine a child’s individualistic belief, or have complete knowledge of the child’s environmental influences. (Singh, 2010)
References • D’Andrea, M., Daniels, J., & Heck, R. (1991). Evaluating the impact of multicultural counseling training. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 143-150. • Fagan, T., & Wise, P.S. (2007). School Psychology: Past, present, and future (3rd ed.). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. • Keim, J., Warring, D. F., & Rau, R. (2001). Impact of multicultural training on school psychology and education students. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28(4), 249-252. • Malone, C. M., Connell, J. E., Fiorello, C, (2010, March). Development of Multicultural Competence in School Psychology Graduate Students. Poster session presented at the annual meeting for NASP, Chicago, IL. • National Association of School Psychologists (2000b). Standards for Training and Field Placement Programs in School Psychology. Bethesda, MD: Author. • Rodriquez, G. M (2010, March 22). The White Anxiety Crisis. Time, 175(11), 52, • Tomlinson-Clarke, S. (2000). Assessing outcomes in a multicultural training course: A qualitative study. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 13(2), 221- 231.