The battle of antietam(Battle of sharpsburg) By: Josh Harrington
WHERE DID IT HAPPEN? The Battle of Antietam took place in the city of Antietam, in Washington County, Maryland.
WHEN DID IT HAPPEN? The Battle of Antietam took place from September 16-18, 1862.
THE LEADERS Major general george b. mclellan(December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) UNION General robert e. lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) South
TACTICS The tactics used at Antietam were similar to those used through a large portion of the civil war. the attacking army would march towards the position of the defending army (usually under cannon fire) and when they got close enough the defending army would use grape shot against them. If enough attackers were left and they had held the line they would fire volleys into each other and if the attack was going well they would fix bayonets and charge. Eventually someone would run away or be wiped out. It was very bloody and the tactics were more suitable for times when fire arms were not as powerful as they had become. The tactics were out dated and it cost 10's of thousands to 100's of thousands their lives.
SUMMARY OF BATTLE On September 16, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan confronted Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia at Sharpsburg, Maryland. At dawn September 17, Hooker’s corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee’s left flank that began the single bloodiest day in American military history. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller’s cornfield and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. Late in the day, Burnside’s corps finally got into action, crossing the stone bridge over Antietam Creek and rolling up the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, A.P. Hill’s division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside and saving the day. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout the 18th, while removing his wounded south of the river. McClellan did not renew the assaults. After dark, Lee ordered the battered Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley.
CONCLUSION -Inconclusive (Union strategic victory.) -Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties. -This was a two to one battle with Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia having approximately 45,00 troops to Union Army Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s 90,000 troops. -The battle began at 5:30 AM (Dawn) on September 17, 1862 and lasted until 5:30 PM that day. -The Union had 12,401 casualties with 2,108 dead. Confederate casualties were 10,318 with 1,546 dead. -President Lincoln was disappointed in McClellan’s performance. He believed that McClellan’s cautious and poorly coordinated actions in the field had forced the battle to a draw rather than a crippling Confederate defeat. Lincoln relieved McClellan of his command of the Army of the Potomac on November 7 after repeated demands that he do his job effectively and bravely, effectively ending the general’s military career.
CONCLUSION(CONT.) -General Lee’s battle plans were known in advance. Two Union soldiers (Corporal Barton W. Mitchell and First Sergeant John M. Bloss of the 27th Indiana Volunteer Infantry) discovered a mislaid copy of Lee’s detailed battle plans-Special Order 191-wrapped around three cigars. McClellan delayed acting on this knowledge 18 hours, thus losing the opportunity laid at his feet. -Estimated casualties: 23,100 total.
Sources http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080516184719AABHffS http://www.mycivilwar.com/battles/620916.html http://www.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/md003.htm http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_the_battle_of_Antietam_affect_the_outcome_of_the_civil_war