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# Hydropower

Hydropower. h ydroelectricity the power of nature Fah Komolkiti. Water is Powerful. Water is Powerful. It can be beneficial, or disastrous. Water is used in industry i.e. moving machine in rice industry, weaving industry, factories, etc.

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## Hydropower

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1. Hydropower hydroelectricitythe power of nature Fah Komolkiti

2. Water is Powerful

3. Water is Powerful It can be beneficial, or disastrous. Water is used in industry i.e. moving machine in rice industry, weaving industry, factories, etc. The most popular use of water is to produce electricity – hydropower.

4. How it works… Electricity is produced when the flow of water from a higher elevation passes through the turbine to a lower elevation, activating the electric generator.

5. How it works… Energy from the hydropower can be calculated: Where: P = power (kW) W = work (kW/hour) Ƴ = unit gravity force of water (9806 N/m3) Q = water flow (m3/s) H = falling height, head (m) µ = efficiency T = time (hour)

6. How it works… If there is limited amount of water, the power plant will only generate electricity from the water when there is a high demand of electricity from the community. For USA, the high demand of electricity if during summer/winter, mostly during work hours and dining:9 am – 12 pm, 1 pm – 3 pm, and 7 pm – 9 pm.

7. Types of Hydropower facility 1. Impoundment 2. Diversion 3. Pumped Storage

8. Types of Hydropower facility This is the most common hydroelectric power plant. Impoundment facility uses a dam to store river water in a reservoir. The 1. Impoundment 2. Diversion 3. Pumped Storage released water flows through the turbine, activating the generator to produce electricity. Mostly, this is done in a mountain valley where river runs through.

9. Types of Hydropower facility 1. Impoundment 2. Diversion (run-of-river) 3. Pumped Storage Channels a portion of a river through a cannel to create electricity. This type of facility if for the area where there is not enough space/not suitable to build a dam. This depends a lot on the amount of water, as there is not much difference in height for the fall of water through the turbine. As long as the river flows, the electricity is produced constantly.

10. Types of Hydropower facility 1. Impoundment 2. Diversion (run-of-river) 3. Pumped Storage This type reacts to the high demand of electricity in a certain hours of the day. It is like a battery, storing the unused electricity for later use. During the low demand hours of the day, water is pumped to the upper reservoir. During the high demand, water is pumped down to the lower reservoir. The flow of river due to gravity allow electricity to generate a lot faster than pumping up the water during the lower demand.

11. positive Water is a renewable source of energy The power plant is long-lasting. No greenhouse gas/carbon particles are produced. It is profitable for country with agriculture, where water can be maintained for usage during the drought.

12. negative The construction of the dam affects communities around the constructing area. Trees are cut down, and animals loose habitats.

13. application USA is currently using hydropower to generate water, but the result electricity produced only covers 6.4 % of the total electricity of the country. The total amount of electricity produced, regarding the research from 2010, is 21,225 MW. Obviously, that is not enough for the electricity demand of USA. This shows that, compared to other nations such as Brazil and Turkey, USA uses a lot of electricity even though it has almost the biggest dam in the world.

14. application Then….we need: More renewable sources of energy Less usage of electricity

15. application Hydropower can be constructed in the mountain valley where river flows through, or along side the river that is long and wide enough to be used in the diversion facility.

16. application • Power plants currently in USA: • Grand Coulee Dam, Washington • Bath County Pumped Storage Station, Virginia • Chief Joseph Dam, Washington • Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant, New York • John Day Dam, Washington • Hoover Dam, Arizona • The Dalles Dam, Washington • We can see that there are a lot of dams in Washington, this is because Washington has ranges of mountains, and suitable for the dam construction.

17. application The easier method is to build a small dam/diversion facility along side the river with lots of energy and power.E.g. The diversion from the Niagara River.

18. conclusion • all in all, water is a renewable source that produce low cost electricity for the communities. • Although the building takes up a wide area of land and trees, it profits the communities and reduce green gas emission, thus there is no pollution produced. • It is a reliable source of energy because water has a cycle of its own, and is not used up like fossil fuel or natural gas. Water the never ending story (http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/) Source: http://www.altenergy.org/renewables/hydroelectric.html http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=7870 http://energy.gov/eere/water/types-hydropower-plants

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