The Vietnam War November 9,1955-April 30,1975 By: Alexys Carn
Its was also known as…… • Second Indochina War • Vietnam Conflict • American war
Vietnam was spilt in two south and north • South supported by • Untied States and Other anti-communist nations • North supported by • Communist Allies
North Vietnamese Army • Engaged in more conventional war committing large units • U.S & South Vietnamese forces relied on air superior because overwhelming firepower to conduct destroy operations involving ground forces, artillery and air strikes
Viet Cong • Lightly armed South Vietnamese communist controlled common front • Largely fought Guerrilla war a) against anti communist
Untied States entered the war to prevent communist to takeover South Vietnam. Military arrived 1950 U.S ground force were withdrawn as part of a policy called Vietnamization
Case Church Amendment passed by us Congress • Prohibited use of American military after August 15 , 1973 • Unless president secured
Casualties There were about 3 to 4 million on both sides.
At the end of the war the Vietnamese had been fighting foreign involvement or occupation in various wars for hundred of years.
During World War II the French were Defeated by Germans in 1940. German Italian Axis Power In turn this meant the French collaborated with Japanese forces after their invasion of French Indochina during 1940.
Untied Kingdom , Untied States and Soviet UnionAgreed that the area belonged to French
French Did not have the ships , weapons or soldiers to immediately retake Vietnam. • Ho Chi Minh initially attempted to negotiate with the French who were slowly re-establishing their control across he country.
War spread to Laos and Cambodia where Communists organized the Pathet Lao. • This situation changed by 1949 when the Chinese Communists had largely won the Chinese Civil War and were free to provide arms Vietnamese allies
January 1950 The communist led by the People Republic of China (PRC) Recognized the Viet Minh’s Democratic republic of Vietnam as the government of Vietnam
Non Communist Organized the French-Backed State of Vietnam In Saigon Led By Bao Dai
The outbreak of The Korean War in June 1950 convinced many Washington policymakers that the war in Indochina
September 1950 • U.S created a Military Assistance and Advisory Group (MAAG) • French request for aid , advise on strategy, and train Vietnamese soldiers • By 1954 U.S had supplied them with 300,00 small arms and spent U.S $1 Billion in support of French Military effort
Vietnam was temporarily partitioned a the 17th parallel , and under the terms of the Geneva Conference • Aided US funded $93 million relocation programs
Catholics flowing south up to 130,000 “Revolutionary Regroups” went north for regroupment
Emperor Bao Dai’s State of Vietnam operates with Ngo Dinh Diem ( appointed in July 1954) prime minister.
April-June 1955 Diem declared the decks of any apposition in the south by laughing military operations
Geneva Conference • - Domino Theory “which argues that if one country all to communist forces than all surrounding countries fall”
1955 he launched the Denounce the communist • Opponents were labeled viet cong “Vietnamese communists“
Insurgency in the South 1956 • Sino Soviet split led to a reduction in the influence of the PRC • Vietnam Minh accept a division of the courtry
Truong Chinh, North Vietnam’s pro PRC party first secretary . • South Vietnam to begin a low level insurgency in Dec 1956
Ho Chi Minh stated • “Do not engage in military aperationd that will not be defeat” • This strategy was referred to as “armed propaganda”
Le` Duan , a communist leader who had been working with the South returned to Hano to accept position of acting first secretary
The Insurgency sought to completely destroy government control in the south Vietnam’s rural villages and replace it with shadow government.
January 1959 • North Central Committee issued a secret resolution authoring an armed struggle
Dec 12,1960 • Hanoi authorize the creation of the national Liberation Front as common from controlled by communist in the South
May 1961 • Vice President Lydon B Jhonson visted Saigon • Strategic Hamlet Program had been initated in 1961
The government refused to retake land reforn which left framers paying high rents to few weathly landlords
On 23 July 1962 • Fourteen nations including the People’s republic in China, South Vietnam , the Soviet Union, North Vietnam and the Untied States , signed an agreement promising the neutrality of Laos
U.S officials been discussing the possibility of change during the summer of1963
The Untied States Department of State was generally in favor of encouraging while defense Department favored Diem
CIA was contacted with general planning to remove Diem • Later overthrow and executed.
November 24 , 1963 • Johnson said the battle against communist… must be joined…. With strength and determination
About 5000 • 1959- 100,000 • 1961- 850,000 – one million soldiers • US troops deployed in Vietnam grew from 2,000 soldiers in 1961 to 16,500 soldiers in 1964
Military revolution council meeting in lieu of destroy South Vietnam leaders. • 12 member headed by General Duong Van Minh who Stanley Karnow journalist on the ground later recalled as “ a model of lethargy”
NLF activist captured during an attacked on an American outpost near the Cambodian border is interrogated.
August 2,1964 • USS Maddox intelligence mission along North Vietnam’s coast fired upon and damaged several boats that had been stalking it in the Gulf of Tonkin.
Second attack about 2 days later on USS Turner Joy and Maddox same area. a. Lyndon community under-Secretary of State Geogre Ball that “those sailors out there may have been shooting at flying fish”
National Security Council three stage escalation of the bombing of North Vietnam. • On the 2nd of March 1965 attacking US Marines Barracks at Pleiku.
Bombing was not restricted to North Vietnam • Operation commando targeted different parts of the NIF and Vietnam People Army (VPA)
Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force Curtis Lemay. • Ground War • US Air Force bases needed more protection
March 8 ,1965 • 3500 US Marines were dispatched to South Vietnamese