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The Vietnam War

The Vietnam War

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The Vietnam War

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  1. The Vietnam War

  2. BACKGROUND FRENCH INDOCHINA BECOMING INDEPENDENT Before WW2 France ruledmost of Indochina (Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam). AfterJapanlostthewar, France triedtotake control of Vietnam again. The French lostthewaragainstNationalistsledbyDien Bien Phu..

  3. 1954 Geneva Agreement

  4. 1954 Geneva Agreement • Cease-fire

  5. 1954 Geneva Agreement • 1) Cease-fire • 2) French troops to withdraw.

  6. 1954 Geneva Agreement • 1) Cease-fire • 2) French troops to withdraw. • 3) Vietnam divided into North and South Vietnam at the 17th Parallel (demilitarised zone between the two). The North wasCommunist (ledby Ho Chi Minh); the South democratic (ledbyNgoDinh Diem).

  7. 1954 Geneva Agreement • 1) Cease-fire • 2) French troops to withdraw. • 3) Vietnam divided into North and South Vietnam at the 17th Parallel (demilitarised zone between the two).

  8. 1954 Geneva Agreement • 1) Cease-fire • 2) French troops to withdraw. • 3) Vietnam divided into North and South Vietnam at the 17th Parallel (demilitarised zone between the two). • 4) Laos and Cambodia = independent states.

  9. 1954 Geneva Agreement Thisneverhappened. On 16th July 1956, Diem madetheannouncementnottocalltheelection. • 1) Cease-fire • 2) French troops to withdraw. • 3) Vietnam divided into North and South Vietnam at the 17th Parallel (demilitarised zone between the two). • 4) Laos and Cambodia = independent states. • 5) National elections to be held in two years (by July 1956) throughout Indochina

  10. 1954 Geneva Agreement • 1) Cease-fire • 2) French troops to withdraw. • 3) Vietnam divided into North and South Vietnam at the 17th Parallel (demilitarised zone between the two). • 4) Laos and Cambodia = independent states. • 5) National elections to be held in two years (by July 1956) throughout Indochina • 6) No foreign bases President Eisenhower didnotrespectthis as he sent American troops in toreplacethe French.

  11. 1954 Geneva Agreement • 1) Cease-fire • 2) French troops to withdraw. • 3) Vietnam divided into North and South Vietnam at the 17th Parallel (demilitarised zone between the two). • 4) Laos and Cambodia = independent states. • 5) National elections to be held in two years (by July 1956) throughout Indochina • 6) No foreign bases • 7) Freedom of movement between the North and South Vietnam for 300 days. Resulted in fluxes of refugees moving north and (mostly) south.

  12. North vs South

  13. North vs South A combination of communist camaraderie and Vietminh nationalism ensured that the people were devoted to Ho Chi Minh, and in return, Ho looked after the people.

  14. North vs South A combination of communist camaraderie and Vietminh nationalism ensured that the people were devoted to Ho Chi Minh, and in return, Ho looked after the people. Diem never had a true connection with the people, nor did he seek to cater for their needs, or act in the best interests of the population.

  15. Who were the Vietcong?

  16. Who were the Vietcong? The communist guerrilla force of the National Liberation Front

  17. Who were the Vietcong? They were backed by the USSR and China The communist guerrilla force of the National Liberation Front

  18. Who were the Vietcong? They were backed by the USSR and China The communist guerrilla force of the National Liberation Front They had the support of the peasants of South Vietnam as they treated them well

  19. Who were the Vietcong? They were backed by the USSR and China The communist guerrilla force of the National Liberation Front They included South Vietnamese opponents of the government and Communist North Vietnamese They had the support of the peasants of South Vietnam as they treated them well

  20. Who were the Vietcong? They were backed by the USSR and China The communist guerrilla force of the National Liberation Front Took orders from Ho Chi Minh They included South Vietnamese opponents of the government and Communist North Vietnamese They had the support of the peasants of South Vietnam as they treated them well

  21. Whydidthe USA getinvolved in the Vietnam War?

  22. 1 minute to write down as many reasons you can think of Whydidthe USA getinvolved in the Vietnam War?

  23. Fear of Communism

  24. Truman doctrine and “Containment”

  25. 1949 Soviet Union 1st atomic bomb test

  26. 1949 China becomes Communist

  27. French lose their colony

  28. Domino Theory

  29. Ngo Dinh Diem was disliked

  30. The NLF were set up

  31. President John. F. Kennedy

  32. President Johnson

  33. The Gulf of Tonkin Incident

  34. Tactics Withsuchadvancedweaponryusedbythe American troops, itwaspresumedthewarwould be short. WhydidtheAmericansfindit so difficulttodefeattheVietcong?

  35. American tactics

  36. American tactics Complete the chart given to you. Your textbook does not give detail about the impact of the tactics so write what you think would be the consequences of using such tactics.

  37. OPERATION ROLLING THUNDER The Americans attempted to force the Vietnamese to surrender through Operation Rolling Thunder.These were bombing raids on Vietnamese towns, intended to destroy morale.

  38. SEARCH & DESTROY In the attempt to find the Viet Cong fighters, the US launched an operation called Search and Destroy : they searched Vietnamese villages for Viet Cong fighters and, if they suspected there were any there, destroyed the village.

  39. SEARCH & DESTROY This often led to deaths of innocent civilians including women and children. The missions made ordinary people hate the Americans: as one marine said of a search and destroy mission – “If they weren’t Viet Cong before we got there, they sure as hell were by the time we left”. The Viet Cong often helped the villager’s re-build their homes and bury their dead.

  40. AGENT ORANGE The thick forest was a real problem for the Americans, because this was how the Viet Cong hid. Determined to find the Viet Cong bases and supply routes, the Americans sprayed a chemical called Agent Orange onto the forests from aeroplanes. It killed the trees, so that the Americans could find their enemy.

  41. AGENT ORANGE But the chemical caused much more harm than this. It killed crops, causing people to go hungry. It also caused birth defects in children born to people who were exposed to the chemical.

  42. NAPALM When the Americans suspected that they had found a Viet Cong base, they would drop Napalm on the site. Napalm was a very flammable fluid, that would burn through almost anything.

  43. NAPALM It often hit civilians.

  44. Viet Cong tactics

  45. Giap Giap developed a strategy for defeating superior opponents. This was not to simply outmanoeuvre them in the field but to undermine their resolve by inflicting demoralizing political defeats through bold and unexpected tactics. He was always prepared to take a gamble, irrespective of the cost in lives.

  46. BOOBY TRAPS Booby traps are an example of a Viet Cong tactic. For example, the Viet Cong would place trip wires or dig holes filled with spikes, sometimes coated in human excrement, and then would cover the hole with leaves to deceive the enemy. Markers like broken sticks would be left on the path to warn fellow Viet Cong about the locations.

  47. TUNNELS- Guerilla Tunnels were used by Viet Cong guerrillas as hiding spots during combat, as well as serving as communication and supply routes, hospitals, food and weapon caches and living quarters for numerous guerrilla fighters. This frustrated Americans who could not locate the tunnels.

  48. THE HO CHI MINH TRAIL The Ho Chi Minh Trail was a network of paths that served as hidden route through the jungle for Viet Cong soldiers and Vietnamese Civilians. The Viet Cong used it to move troops, weapons and other supplies into and around the country without being detected by the Americans. The Americans constantly tried to find the trail, but it was too well hidden and frequently changed. It was essential in allowing the north Vietnamese to beat the Americans.

  49. Other problems... The main form of transportation for the Vietcong was either by foot or by bicycle. This made it impossible for the Americans to cut off supplies from Russia and China as the Vietcong could always find a way through regardless of how much the Ho Chi Minh trail was bombed.

  50. Other problems... Helmet: very hot Uniform: rots in heat Backpack: 90lbs/41kg Rifle: jams as soon as it contacts water