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Energy Balance

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  1. Energy Balance By Kaci Thompson February 2013

  2. Energy Balance • Simple equation: • Energy In + Energy Out = Energy Balance • 3500 kcalories are the key • 1 lb of body fat is ~ 87% fat • Remaining 13% is a mixture of protein and water

  3. Quick changes in weight are not simple changes in fat stores • Includes: • Some fat • Large amounts of fluid • Some lean tissue • Long-term, weight loss/gain is 75% fat and 25% lean

  4. Energy In: Provided from Foods • Separate Energy Values • 1 g Carbohydrate = 4 kcal • 1 g Fat = 9 kcal • 1 g Protein = 4 kcal • 1 g Alcohol = 7 kcal

  5. Energy In: Provided from Foods • The body must meet its needs without taking in too much or too little. • Appetite – prompts someone to eat or not to eat • Hunger – recognized as an irritating feeling that prompts thoughts of food and motivates them to start eating.

  6. Hunger & Satiety • Satiation – That “full” feeling • Occurs DURING a meal • Determines how much food is consumed during a meal. • Satiety – That “full” feeling • Occurs AFTER a meal • Inhibits eating until the next meal. • Determines how much time passes between mels.

  7. Overriding Hunger & Satiety • Triggers to eat are everywhere • Hunger • Environment (Time, weather, etc.) • Bored • Stress • Availability • Cognitive (perceptions, memories, etc.)

  8. Sustaining Satiation & Satiety • Depends on nutrient composition. • Protein considered most satiating. • Foods low in energy density are more satiating. • High-fiber foods effectively provide satiation by filling the stomach and delaying the absorption of nutrients. • High-fat foods stimulates the appetite.

  9. The Technicalities • Hypothalamus – Control center • Controls maintenance of water balance, regulation of body temperature, and control of appetite. • Gastrointestinal hormones – Influence appetite control and energy balance.

  10. Energy Out: Body expends • Thermogenesis – Generation of heat. • 3 categories of Thermogenesis: • Basal Metabolism • Physical Activity • Food Consumption

  11. Components of Energy Expenditure • Basal Metabolism – Energy needed to maintain life. • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – Expressed as kcal/kg body weight per hour. • Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) – Energy used for a person at rest in a comfortable setting.

  12. Components of Energy Expenditure • Physical activity – Voluntary movement of the skeletal muscles and support systems. • Muscles need energy to perform • Depends on 3 things: • Muscle Mass • Body Weight • Activity • Energy expenditure influences: • Duration • Frequency • Intensity

  13. Components of Energy Expenditure • Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) – Estimation of energy required to process food. • Is proportional to the food energy taken in and estimated at 10% of energy intake. • Adaptive thermogenesis – Adjustments related to changes in the environment.

  14. Remember….. • Every Body is different. • How a 6 ft male burns energy differs from that of a 5 ft male. • How people handle their wants and needs vary.