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THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

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THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

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  1. THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR 1861-1865

  2. The Civil War (1861-1865) • a period of war between Northern + Southern states • Army of the Union (U.S.)- 23 states • Confederate States of America (C.S.A.)- 11 states • 600,000 soldiers died • More than all the deaths of our other campaigns! • Over ½ die from disease than bullets

  3. What was happening in the US before the War started?

  4. A Deeply Divided America • 31,000,000 citizens • 34 states (Minnesota, Oregon, Kansas) • 3,000,000 slaves in South (½ of total pop.) • Blacks born & live in filth, disease, ignorance • Taylor, Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan were Presidents between 1849-1861 • Largely ineffective - inactions helped further the cause for war

  5. “_____ states” “_____ states” Differences between northern and southern states: North South __________ economy industrial agricultural __________ economy free slave

  6. A Deeply Divided America • Secession had been suggested many times as only way to deal with slavery • South felt slavery only way to preserve economy - didn’t know what to do w/o slaves • Slavery had been in America so long (1619) that it was called “a peculiar institution”

  7. Society’s Efforts to Stop Slavery • “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” (1852) - violent slavery story by Harriet B. Stowe moves many to join abolitionists • Sold 300,000 copies inthe first year. • 2 million in a decade!

  8. Society’s Efforts to Stop Slavery • “Underground Railroad” created by Harriet Tubman + conductors to evacuate slaves from South- almost 50,000 saved by “railroad” • Tubman rescued over 300 slaves after her escape

  9. The Issue of Slavery RACISM RULED throughout country • Abolitionists racist by modern standards – Churches, schools, cemeteries wouldn’t accept them – workers didn’t trust them – worried about their own jobs • Mistreated in South • Girls used + sold as breeders for more slaves • Southerners see their slaves as property, which could be moved with them to new lands

  10. The Wilmot Proviso (1846) Before Mexican War was over, slavery’s future in southwestern lands caused strong debate in the U.S. 1846: Wilmot Provisodivides country along sectional lines

  11. What caused the Civil War to occur?

  12. An America Free, or Slave? • Several attempts made to deal with slavery – NONE WERE SUCCESSFUL • The Missouri Compromise (1820) – Maine (FREE) and Missouri (SLAVE) enter the Union • The Compromise of 1850 – California (FREE) and Congress makes no laws regarding territories won in M/A War

  13. Path to War (1850-1856) • “Bleeding Kansas” (1856) • Popular Sovereignty decides slavery in Kansas (Henry Clay) • FAILED - Lawrence burned by pro-slavery radicals • State collapsed into civil war - 200 people killed – “…a territory of mobs and gangs, of lynchings, shootings at night, rigged elections, and literally murderous rivalries.” • Debate spills over into violence in the nation’s capital

  14. Dred Scott Decision - FACTS: • Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri. (MO) Dred Scott

  15. Dred Scott Decision - FACTS: • Scott and his owner moved to Wisconsin for four years. Dred Scott

  16. Dred Scott Decision (1857) - FACTS: • Scott’s owner died after returning to Missouri. Dred Scott

  17. Dred Scott Decision (1857) - FACTS: * Scott sued for his freedom. He claimed that he should be a free man since he lived in a free territory (WI) for four years. Dred Scott

  18. SUPREME COURT DECISIONS: Q: Was Scott a U.S. citizen with the right to sue? A:NO Q: Did living in a free territory make Scott a free man? A:NO Q: Did Congress have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory? A:NO

  19. RESULTS: • Dred Scott was not given his freedom. • The Missouri Compromise was found to be unconstitutional. Open to slavery through popular sovereignty (Compromise of 1850) Open to slavery through popular sovereignty (KS-NE Act) Missouri Compromise line is declared unconstitutional (Dred Scott Decision)

  20. “The Final Straw” (1859-1860) • John Brown’s Raid (1859) • Brown attacked federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry - hoped to use weapons to free all slaves • Failed- captured, hanged

  21. Abraham Lincoln’s Election • Lincoln’s election in 1860 angers South – slaveholders call him “The Black Republican” - S. Carolina secedes on Dec. 20, 1860

  22. Events During The Civil War

  23. 1860 Election Results

  24. 1860 Election: A Nation Coming Apart?!

  25. Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860

  26. The Union and Confederacy in 1861

  27. Leadership during the War Abraham Lincoln (US) Jefferson Davis (CSA)

  28. Realities of the Campaign • Each side made critical errors in the early years of the War • Lincoln seriously underestimates the will of the South – not prepared for response his army receives in early years of the War • The South wrongly assumes Britain will come to its aid – all of Europe has banned slavery by 1860

  29. Ranking North v. South: 1861

  30. Resources

  31. Advantages of the Union (North)? Population - 22 million 90% of industry - goods, esp. munitions Efficient railroad system Controlled the navy, which could be used to blockade southern ports and shutdown the South’s economy but would have to fight an offensive war (long supply lines, unfamiliar territory...) Capable mil. leaders, inc. Ulysses S. Grant

  32. Confederate (Rebel) advantages (South) and disadvantages Confederates had excellent generals too -Robert E. Lee and Thomas Jackson Defending is always easier than attacking - (familiar w/climate and territory, possible psychological advantages) Farmers fight better than factory workers Profitable eco. based on cotton exports But disadvantages…a smaller pop. of 9 million (inc. 3.5 million slaves) had to import industrial goods; very little munitions production

  33. Weapons of the Civil War • Most soldiers were issued smoothbore muskets that were difficult to load and could be fired at an accurate range of only about 100 yards, only three times in one minute. Rifled muskets were much more accurate and deadly with a range of up to 500 yards.

  34. Destruction from Artillery • In the Civil War, some Cannons were rifled for better accuracy and more power. • Rifled cannons could accurately lob shells for almost 2000 yards; that is almost one mile!. • Smoothbore cannons were not as accurate and could be lobbed 500 yards.

  35. Technology made Civil War . . . The Monitor

  36. More efficient and deadly

  37. First metal ships in world!

  38. Key Battles • Fort Sumter (1861): War starts

  39. Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas), July 1861 • Union defeat • Forces both sides to realize that the War will not end quickly

  40. Fort Donelson – February 1862 • Attacks by Ulysses S. Grant gave the Union its first victory of the War

  41. Shiloh - April 1862 • Union Victory (24,000 casualties)

  42. Antietam, 1862 • Union Victory – largest loss of life during the War (more than 25,000 casualties)

  43. Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863 Freed the slaves only in states that seceded from the Union. It did not free slaves in border states. Constitution forbid Lincoln to free slaves in the Union