THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
The Civil War (1861-1865) • a period of war between Northern + Southern states • Army of the Union (U.S.)- 23 states • Confederate States of America (C.S.A.)- 11 states • 600,000 soldiers died • More than all the deaths of our other campaigns! • Over ½ die from disease than bullets
What was happening in the US before the War started?
A Deeply Divided America • 31,000,000 citizens • 34 states (Minnesota, Oregon, Kansas) • 3,000,000 slaves in South (½ of total pop.) • Blacks born & live in filth, disease, ignorance • Taylor, Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan were Presidents between 1849-1861 • Largely ineffective - inactions helped further the cause for war
“_____ states” “_____ states” Differences between northern and southern states: North South __________ economy industrial agricultural __________ economy free slave
A Deeply Divided America • Secession had been suggested many times as only way to deal with slavery • South felt slavery only way to preserve economy - didn’t know what to do w/o slaves • Slavery had been in America so long (1619) that it was called “a peculiar institution”
Society’s Efforts to Stop Slavery • “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” (1852) - violent slavery story by Harriet B. Stowe moves many to join abolitionists • Sold 300,000 copies inthe first year. • 2 million in a decade!
Society’s Efforts to Stop Slavery • “Underground Railroad” created by Harriet Tubman + conductors to evacuate slaves from South- almost 50,000 saved by “railroad” • Tubman rescued over 300 slaves after her escape
The Issue of Slavery RACISM RULED throughout country • Abolitionists racist by modern standards – Churches, schools, cemeteries wouldn’t accept them – workers didn’t trust them – worried about their own jobs • Mistreated in South • Girls used + sold as breeders for more slaves • Southerners see their slaves as property, which could be moved with them to new lands
The Wilmot Proviso (1846) Before Mexican War was over, slavery’s future in southwestern lands caused strong debate in the U.S. 1846: Wilmot Provisodivides country along sectional lines
What caused the Civil War to occur?
An America Free, or Slave? • Several attempts made to deal with slavery – NONE WERE SUCCESSFUL • The Missouri Compromise (1820) – Maine (FREE) and Missouri (SLAVE) enter the Union • The Compromise of 1850 – California (FREE) and Congress makes no laws regarding territories won in M/A War
Path to War (1850-1856) • “Bleeding Kansas” (1856) • Popular Sovereignty decides slavery in Kansas (Henry Clay) • FAILED - Lawrence burned by pro-slavery radicals • State collapsed into civil war - 200 people killed – “…a territory of mobs and gangs, of lynchings, shootings at night, rigged elections, and literally murderous rivalries.” • Debate spills over into violence in the nation’s capital
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS: • Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri. (MO) Dred Scott
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS: • Scott and his owner moved to Wisconsin for four years. Dred Scott
Dred Scott Decision (1857) - FACTS: • Scott’s owner died after returning to Missouri. Dred Scott
Dred Scott Decision (1857) - FACTS: * Scott sued for his freedom. He claimed that he should be a free man since he lived in a free territory (WI) for four years. Dred Scott
SUPREME COURT DECISIONS: Q: Was Scott a U.S. citizen with the right to sue? A:NO Q: Did living in a free territory make Scott a free man? A:NO Q: Did Congress have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory? A:NO
RESULTS: • Dred Scott was not given his freedom. • The Missouri Compromise was found to be unconstitutional. Open to slavery through popular sovereignty (Compromise of 1850) Open to slavery through popular sovereignty (KS-NE Act) Missouri Compromise line is declared unconstitutional (Dred Scott Decision)
“The Final Straw” (1859-1860) • John Brown’s Raid (1859) • Brown attacked federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry - hoped to use weapons to free all slaves • Failed- captured, hanged
Abraham Lincoln’s Election • Lincoln’s election in 1860 angers South – slaveholders call him “The Black Republican” - S. Carolina secedes on Dec. 20, 1860
Events During The Civil War
1860 Election Results
Leadership during the War Abraham Lincoln (US) Jefferson Davis (CSA)
Realities of the Campaign • Each side made critical errors in the early years of the War • Lincoln seriously underestimates the will of the South – not prepared for response his army receives in early years of the War • The South wrongly assumes Britain will come to its aid – all of Europe has banned slavery by 1860
Advantages of the Union (North)? Population - 22 million 90% of industry - goods, esp. munitions Efficient railroad system Controlled the navy, which could be used to blockade southern ports and shutdown the South’s economy but would have to fight an offensive war (long supply lines, unfamiliar territory...) Capable mil. leaders, inc. Ulysses S. Grant
Confederate (Rebel) advantages (South) and disadvantages Confederates had excellent generals too -Robert E. Lee and Thomas Jackson Defending is always easier than attacking - (familiar w/climate and territory, possible psychological advantages) Farmers fight better than factory workers Profitable eco. based on cotton exports But disadvantages…a smaller pop. of 9 million (inc. 3.5 million slaves) had to import industrial goods; very little munitions production
Weapons of the Civil War • Most soldiers were issued smoothbore muskets that were difficult to load and could be fired at an accurate range of only about 100 yards, only three times in one minute. Rifled muskets were much more accurate and deadly with a range of up to 500 yards.
Destruction from Artillery • In the Civil War, some Cannons were rifled for better accuracy and more power. • Rifled cannons could accurately lob shells for almost 2000 yards; that is almost one mile!. • Smoothbore cannons were not as accurate and could be lobbed 500 yards.
Technology made Civil War . . . The Monitor
Key Battles • Fort Sumter (1861): War starts
Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas), July 1861 • Union defeat • Forces both sides to realize that the War will not end quickly
Fort Donelson – February 1862 • Attacks by Ulysses S. Grant gave the Union its first victory of the War
Shiloh - April 1862 • Union Victory (24,000 casualties)
Antietam, 1862 • Union Victory – largest loss of life during the War (more than 25,000 casualties)
Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863 Freed the slaves only in states that seceded from the Union. It did not free slaves in border states. Constitution forbid Lincoln to free slaves in the Union