Analyze (V.) To examine critically
How do I analyze a text? Finding evidence: • Textual evidence is support that you find in the text. • If you make a claim, you must support that claim with evidence. (This is not just for scientists.) • You may think you have the correct answer but if the text does not support you, it may be wrong (regardless of YOUR personal knowledge).
Inference (V.) To make an educated guess, based upon any information that is provided. Example: Situation: Everyone is singing “Happy Birthday” to Lily. Inference: It is Lily’s birthday today.
A Time to Talkby: Robert Frost • How does the narrator feel about friendship? Answer: The narrator feels that friendship is more important than many other things in life. Evidence: Line 1, Line 3, Line 9 & 10 The narrator implies this feeling, without stating it directly (explicitly).
Figurative Language • Figurative Language can be fun, but requires you to “read between the lines.” • If you read too literally, you may be left behind. • Figurative Language paints a picture in your mind. • If a statement is too straightforward (literal) then you do not need your imagination.
Alliteration • Repetition of initial (beginning) consonant sounds Surely sailing the seas is so simple. The “s”sound gives the feel of waves and wind swishing around the sea.
Hyperbole Paul Bunyan: "Well now, one winter it was so cold that all the geese flew backward and all the fish moved south and even the snow turned blue.”
Metaphor Comparison of two unlike things with a direct statement (without using “like” of “as”) All the world's a stage and men and women merely players.
Onomatopoeia Words with sound effects. sizzlecrack, crackle, boom
Simile Making a comparison between two unlike things using “like” or “as” “In the eastern sky there was a yellow patch like a rug laid for the feet of the coming sun . . .” — The Red Badge of Courage, by Stephen Crane
Personification Giving human characteristics to non-human items. “In the eastern sky there was a yellow patch like a rug laid for the feet of the coming sun . . .” — The Red Badge of Courage, by Stephen Crane
Symbol An object that represents (stands for) an idea beyond the obvious. Life is a roller-coaster: This is symbolic because it indicates that there will be ups and downs in life that you have to weather. What other type of figurative language is used on this example?
Connotation Meaning of a word which is implied based upon context Word choice conveys meaning and tone in a text.
Connotation Uses: Example: Happy Cheerful Elated Content Pleased Joyful Glad Cheerful Tickled • Authors are careful to choose their words based upon the slight differences in connotation. • Synonyms- Words that have a similar meaning Different word have varying degrees of expression
Connotations • Some words could have a positive or a negative connotation depending on the tone. Example: “That was an extravagant party.” • Someone might infer that it was too much, or over the top. • It could also mean that the party was fantastic.
Your Turn… Now practice with some examples from the book (pages 37-47)