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Bell Work 10/23/13 – 3 min

Bell Work 10/23/13 – 3 min. Start a new bell work sheet. Write “Kinetic Theory of Matter” at the top. Define temperature in your own words. Describe what happens to the water. Why do you think this happens? Guess!. Schedule. Wednesday Notes Mole Day? Thursday Notes! Review lab?

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Bell Work 10/23/13 – 3 min

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1. Bell Work 10/23/13 – 3 min Start a new bell work sheet. Write “Kinetic Theory of Matter” at the top. • Define temperature in your own words. • Describe what happens to the water. • Why do you think this happens? Guess!

2. Schedule • Wednesday • Notes • Mole Day? • Thursday • Notes! • Review lab? • Friday • Lab?

3. Kinetic Theory of Matter The 4 states of matter and the phases changes between them.

4. Today you are going to… take notes and witness awesome demos on the Kinetic Theory of Matter. So you can… begin to consider matter on a molecular level & explain what temperature is and how it affects matter You’ll know you’ve got it when…you can • Define: matter, absolute zero, temperature • Explain the Kinetic Theory of Matter • Identify 3 temperature scales and know absolute zero, melting points, and boiling points of water for each • Explain & give examples of thermal expansion • Identify & describe the 4 states of matter

5. First…what’s matter? Anything that has mass & volume OR Anything exhibiting property of inertia inertia - resistance to change in motion • more mass = more inertia (harder to move or stop) What’s mass? The amount of matter in a substance OR A measurement of the amount of inertia in an object (medicine ball demo)

6. Next…what’s kinetic mean? KINETIC means MOVING Kinetic energy is energy of motion.

7. Kinetic Theory of Matter • matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms that are in constant motion unless their temperature is at Absolute Zero • Absolute zero • the coldest anything could ever be – a theoretical temperature • Zero thermal energy…atoms are completely still • Superfluid Helium @ -269 oC

8. Temperature • Temperature – the averagekinetic energy of the molecules in a substance • Measured in degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius, or Kelvin

9. Bell Work 10/24/13 – 3 min • Give the Kinetic Theory of Matter (your own words or the words we used). • If something is getting “hotter”, what is it really doing?

10. matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms that are in constant motion unless their temperature is at Absolute Zero

11. Key Temperatures K o C o F • Water boils • Hot beverage 77 170 • Room temp. 21 70 • Water freezes • Absolute Zero −459.67 °F

12. What is a state of matter? • A state of matter is • one of the four principal conditions in which matter exists • AKA “phase” of matter • The state of matter is in depends on its temperature.

13. The four states (phases) of matter are: • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma

14. Solids • Lowest energy • Particles are closest together, so they have a lower volume and, consequently, are more dense. Densest! • Particles can only vibrate. • Solids have a definite shape and volume.

15. Is glass solid? 2 kinds of solids • Crystalline solids – made up of tiny, repeating geometric shapes • Ex. Sugar, salt, aluminum, steel, • Amorphous Solids – not made up of crystals, softer (more malleable) • Cross between liquid & solid • wax, plastic, glass

16. Draw solids

17. Add a little heat and what happens? Thermal Expansion – tendency of matter’s volume to increase as temperature increases Occurs in all states of matter Demos! bimetal strip & ball & hoop Put ball in glass of water to cool & what happens??

18. Add more heat and what do you get??

19. Liquids • More energy than solids • Particles are still bound together, but not as tightly. Therefore, there is an increased volume, so liquids are less dense than solids.* • Have a definite volume, but does NOT have a definite shape • the particles are too loosely bound • Liquids are considered to be fluid • Fluid - the inability of the matter to retain it’s own shape. • Ex?

20. Draw Liquids

21. Add heat and what do you get??

22. Gases • More energy than liquids • The particles are so energized, that they break apart from each other. • maximum volume (will fill any container they are in) • Are compressible! • have a very low density. • no definite shape or volume due to the lack of attachment of particles.

23. Gases • Gasses will diffuse. • Diffusion - spread out & fill room • Gases are considered to be fluid due to their inability to retain their shape shape. • Ex?

24. Gases

25. Bell Work 10/25 – 5 minutes K o C o F • Water boils at • Water freezes at • Absolute Zero is • When you heat a solid, it _________. If you heat the solid further, it _______, turning into a _______. If you heat it further, it ________, turning into a ______. • If you heat it further, it will become so hot that the atoms lose their _________, becoming ions. This state of matter is called _________.

26. If you add enough heat, what do you get???

27. Plasma • highest energy • similar to gases , but particles are so hot (so energized) that they lose electrons, becoming ions. • Ions are charged particles! • made up of particles that are completely separated from each other • Least dense phase of matter • Plasmas are considered to be _______due their inability to retain their own shape.

28. Plasma • Rare on Earth, but most common form of matter in the universe • Stars are made of plasma.

29. Plasma is NOT Blood Plasma

30. To sum it all up go to the website listed below: • http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states.html

31. PHASE CHANGES

32. ______________– a phase change in which a liquid becomes a gas Boiling – to change from liquid to gas rapidly by heating ______________– phase change in which a gas becomes a liquid. PHASE CHANGES

33. _____________– liquid is cooled and becomes a solid _____________– solid is heated and becomes a liquid PHASE CHANGES

34. PHASE CHANGES Sublimation – solid goes directly to gas

35. PHASE CHANGES Deposition – gas goes directly to solid

36. Phase Changes of H2O at STP Water freezes at Ice melts at Water boils at Water condenses at

37. Bell Work 10/28/13 – 3 min Get your homework out to be checked! • Which has more energy, ice at 0oF or water at 0oC? Explain! (What can particles in one do that particles in the other can’t?)

39. Conservation of Energy • Energy cannot be created nor destroyed • It can change from one form to another • Energy cannot just disappear!!!

40. Heating & Cooling Curve Lab Today you are going to…create a heating curve for water & a cooling curve for wax. So you can…discover what happens when a substance goes through a phase change You’ll know you’ve got it when…you can • Explain what is happening for each segment of a temperature vs. time graph

41. If you were to graph the temperature changes as heat energy is added to a substance, what would it look like? What type of graph would you choose? What would be the independent variable? What would be the dependent variable? Make your prediction graph now Include both axes and units, but you don’t write numbers on the axes

42. Lab Procedures Grade (5 pts) • BE CAREFUL • Group behavior affects group lab grade. • Stay in group • Each person actively working the whole time (3 roles) • Timer/Recorder • Water stirrer • Wax watcher • Leave wax in the container so you don’t spill it or break the test tube • Thermometer – don’t touch it to the bottom • Keep it in the water while taking the temperature • While taking temp, don’t take it out or touch sides • Stir constantly • Timer – runs constantly…DON’T STOP IT!

43. Lab Procedures Grade (5 pts) • Note on chart when all ice melted & when it starts to boil • Clean up & start working on graph when finished • Turn off & unplug hotplate • Leave water on hotplate • Put thermometers away • Put wax back in water bath (thermometer will be stuck in) • Carry test tube in the containter. DON’T CARRY IT BY THE THERMOMETER • HW finish graph, will be checked at beginning of class tomorrow • Make it take almost the whole page • Include title • Label both axes and include units

44. LAB! • Don’t do the following notes until we do the lab. Specific heat notes at the end are ok though.

45. Bell Work 10/29/13 – 1 minute • What was strange about the temperatures in yesterday’s lab?

46. Bell Work 10/22/12 – Take your lab & graph out & put it upside-down on your desk. • Is the below graph a cooling curve or a heating curve? • Identify what is happening to the substance at each graph segment (a,b,c,d,e). (boiling, melting, heating, ect.) • W5SAYWoS

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