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Tutorial on Methane Hydrate

Tutorial on Methane Hydrate

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Tutorial on Methane Hydrate

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  1. Tutorial on Methane Hydrate Presented by Ad Hoc Group on Methane Hydrate Research March 24, 2004

  2. Tutorial on Methane Hydrate • What is it and how is it formed? • Where is it found? • How much may exist? • Multi-National Research • Marine • Arctic • Research Needs • International Research Consortium • APEC EWG Participation

  3. What is a Gas Hydrate? Crystalline solid consisting of gas molecules, usually methane, each surrounded by a cage of water molecules

  4. Where Does the Gas Come from? • Thermogenic Hydrate • Thermal breakdown of organic material at greater depths • Biogenic Hydrate • Microbial activity in the upper several hundred meters of deep-sea sediment (about 99%)

  5. Free Gas Free Gas GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT Where Does Gas Hydrate Exist? Where gas and water are present at: • Moderately low temperatures • Moderately high pressures

  6. Where are Hydrates Found on Earth?

  7. Gas Hydrate How Much May Exist? • Hydrate binds immense amounts of methane in sediments

  8. Multi-National Research Progress • Demonstrated the feasibility of methane production from arctic hydrate deposits • Detailed studies of the geologic setting, methane flow and biologic communities of several subsea hydrate deposits • Identified methane hydrate deposits throughout the world’s oceans, primarily based on unique seismic reflections

  9. Mackenzie Delta, Mallik Production Experiment 2002 • Participants: • Canada • Geological Survey of Canada • Industry • Japan • Japan National Oil Corporation • Japan Petroleum Exploration Company • USA • U.S. Geological Survey • U.S. Department of Energy • Germany • GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam • India • Ministry of Petroleum Geology and Natural Gas, • Gas Authority India. Ltd. • ICSDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) • Universities and research institutes in Japan, Canada, USA, Germany, and China Well tests prove for the first time that gas production from hydrate is technically feasible By dissociating or melting the gas hydrate by heating and/or depressurizing the reservoir

  10. Marine Methane Hydrate Characterization Joint Industry Program in Gulf of Mexico involving: U.S. Department of Energy, Department of Interior, Chevron-Texaco, Schlumberger, Halliburton, ConocoPhillips, TotalFinaElf, and Japan National Oil Corp. • Goals: • Characterize natural gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico; and • Understand the hazards of drilling through the hydrate stability zone • Status: • High resolution seismic, laboratory studies and subsea sampling in progress • Several sites will be cored and logged this summer Fugro Explorer mini drillship

  11. Marine Methane Hydrate ExploitationNankai Trough, Japan • 1995, Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, METI launched gas hydrate exploitation program • Bottom Simulating Reflectors present in Nankai Trough and around much of Japan • 1999 Test well in Nankai Trough, drilled by Japan National Oil Corp. and Japan Petroleum Exploration (JAPEX) -- cored and logged a large accumulation of gas hydrate • Gas hydrate fills pores in sandstones from 211–270 m below seafloor • Basic laboratory research, high-resolution seismic and additional coring in progress • Program aims to develop technology for commercial production of methane from hydrate by 2016

  12. Ocean Drilling Program • 2002: Hydrate Ridge, Pacific Northwest U.S. • 1995: Blake Ridge, U.S. Atlantic • 1982: Deep Sea Drilling Program, Middle-America Trench: first hydrate cores Natural Resources Canada

  13. Other Pacific Rim Hydrate Research Canada: • Pacific Margin (Cascadia Margin) - studies investigating genesis, origin, and morphology of regional gas hydrate deposits • Atlantic Margin (continental slope) - geophysical studies to identify geo-hazards related to gas hydrate in areas of intensive oil/gas production and transport • Arctic Margin (Beaufort Sea) - investigation of the relations between offshore gas hydrates, local/regional hydrocarbon gas fluxes, and anomalous sub-marine landscape features as well as seismic studies in inter-island channels of the Arctic Archipelago.  Chile: • 2003 expedition offshore central Chile, including scientists from Chile, Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany applied different geophysical and geochemical methods to detect and characterize gas hydrate

  14. Other Pacific Rim Hydrate Research (cont.) Japan: • MH21, Methane Hydrate Research Consortium: integrated laboratory and field studies to characterize hydrates and develop technology needed for commercial production of natural gas from hydrate by 2016 United States: • Production and safety: field studies and reservoir modeling in Alaska North Slope and Gulf of Mexico. Coring, logging planned 2004. • Geophysical detection, geochemistry, ecology and global carbon modeling studies by multiple government agencies, universities and industry Many Pacific Rim countries have found preliminary evidence of gas hydrates: New Zealand, Korea, China, and Australia

  15. Research Needs • Refine world hydrate estimates • Develop remote measurement techniques • Determine role of hydrate in global carbon cycle • Improve coring and sampling techniques • Transfer technology to countries with hydrate resources

  16. International Research Consortium Goals and Objectives • Increase knowledge of the location, geologic character and volume of methane hydrate in the Pacific Rim • By facilitating multi-national research and coordinating information exchange • And working with APEC Energy Working Group to communicate research results to government policy makers • Contributing knowledge needed for future production of methane from hydrate

  17. Proposed Consortium Structure • Focus on seismic, core and sample surveys to locate, quantify and define geologic setting of methane hydrate deposits • Consortium open to academic, private and governmental research organizations • Participation in any research project will be optional to Consortium members • Project expenses will be paid only by participating organizations • Consortium Secretariat (provided by U.S.) • Assist project teams to organize expeditions • Maintain and distribute project data • Outreach and communication

  18. APEC Energy Working Group Participation • APEC Enhanced Energy Security Initiative, October 2003 • Proposal for International Methane Hydrate Research Consortium presented at multi-national workshop in Chile, November 2003 • Ad hoc group formed by APEC EWG, December 2003 • Consortium organizing meeting planned in Fall 2004 Encourage participation of research community and energy producers. Contact Edith.Allison@hq.doe.govto participate in the meeting